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Relazione da Anonimo10 day agoSconosciuto
In 1954 Djajakusuma directed two comedies, Putri dari Medan (Daughter of Medan) and Mertua Sinting (Insane Parents-in-Law). The first dealt with three young men who resolve to never marry, only for their strength to waver after meeting some women from Medan,[34] while the second followed a man who rejects his son's choice of spouse owing to her lack of noble descent, then unknowingly chooses the same woman to be his son's wife.[35] The following year Djajakusuma helped establish the Indonesian Screen Actors Guild (Persatuan Artis Film Indonesia; PARFI).[4] His only film that year, the drama Arni, told of a man who married another woman while his sick wife went to Padang, Sumatra, for treatment.[36]Djajakusuma studied cinematography in the United States, first at the University of Washington in Seattle, then at the University of Southern California's School of Cinematic Arts, from 1956 to 1957.[4] When he returned to Indonesia, he worked with Ismail and fellow Perfini employee Asrul Sani to establish the National Theatre Academy of Indonesia (Akademi Teater Nasional Indonesia), which promoted realism; the Indonesian dramatist Putu Wijaya described the realism promoted by the Academy as more Indonesian than Western,[37] while Djajakusuma considered inspired by the Italian neorealist movement.[38] Djajakusuma remained a lecturer with the academy until 1970, and his students considered him humorous and easy to approach.[39]Upon his return to Indonesia, Djajakusuma began work o
Relazione da Anonimo10 day agoSconosciuto
Early lifeJair Bolsonaro was born on 21 March 1955 in the city of Glicério, São Paulo,[6] in the southeast region of Brazil, to Perci Geraldo Bolsonaro and Olinda Bonturi, both of Italian descent.[7]Bolsonaro has been married three times and has five children. His first wife was Rogéria Bolsonaro (with whom he has three sons: Flávio, Carlos and Eduardo). His second marriage was with Ana Cristina (with whom he has one son, Renan). His third and current wife is Michelle de Paula Firmo Reinaldo Bolsonaro, with whom he has his only daughter, Laura.[8] While working in Congress, Jair hired his wife as a secretary and over the next two years she received unusual promotions and her salary more than tripled. He had to fire her after the Supreme Federal Court ruled that nepotism is illegal in the public administration.[9] Bolsonaro and his current wife live in Barra da Tijuca, a wealthy area in Rio de Janeiro.Military careerIn his final years in high school, Bolsonaro was admitted to the prep school of the Brazilian Army and then was sent to the Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras (Brazil's main military academy), graduating in 1977. He briefly served in the army's parachutist units. His superior officers described him as "ambitious and aggressive".[10][2]His first rise to publicity came in 1986 when he gave an interview to the news magazine Veja. He complained about low salaries in the military and claimed that the High Command was firing officers due to budgetary cuts and no
Relazione da Anonimo10 day agoSconosciuto
CrewEnam Djam di Jogja (Six Hours in Yogya; 1951) – as screenwriterEmbun (Dewdrop; 1951) – as director and screenwriterDosa Tak Berampun (Unforgivable Sin; 1951) – as screenwriterTerimalah Laguku (Take My Song; 1952) – as directorHarimau Tjampa (Tiger from Tjampa; 1953) – as director and screenwriterPutri dari Medan (Girl From Medan; 1954) – directorMertua Sinting (Insane Parents-in-Law; 1954) – as directorArni (1955) – as directorTjambuk Api (Whips of Fire; 1958) – as directorPak Prawiro (Mr. Prawiro; 1958) – as director and screenwriterPedjuang (Warriors for Freedom; 1960) – as production managerMak Tjomblang (Mrs. Tjomblang; 1960) – as director and screenwriterLahirnja Gatotkatja (Birth of Gatotkatja; 1960) – as director and screenwriterMasa Topan dan Badai (Time of Cyclones and Storms; 1963) – as directorRimba Bergema (Echoing Jungles; 1964) – as directorBimo Kroda (1967) – as directorMalin Kundang (Anak Durhaka) (Malin Kundang [Faithless Child]; 1971) – as directorApi Dibukit Menoreh (Gugurnya Tohpati) (Fire on Mount Menoreh [Death of Tohpati]; 1971) – as directorBang Kojak (Brother Kojak; 1977) – as producer
Relazione da Anonimo11 day agoSconosciuto
Indonesian National RevolutionPresident Sukarno proclaimed Indonesia's independence on 17 August 1945, days after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Expecting the Dutch colonial government to return, Djajakusuma and Ismail helped establish the Independent Artists (Seniman Merdeka) as a form of resistance. The group travelled throughout the city, spreading news of Indonesia's proclaimed independence while performing from an open-air truck. After the arrival of the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration, the group sometimes attempted to spy on the Europeans or hide information which would be considered useful to the returning Dutch forces. Owing to this dangerous work, Djajakusuma began carrying a pistol, and went to Banten to ask a kyai to make him impervious to bullets.[12]In early 1946, with the Dutch colonial forces in control of Jakarta, Djajakusuma fled to the new national capital at Yogyakarta.[13] There, he spent a time with the national news agency Antara[14] before joining the military's educational division, rising to the rank of captain.[15] For the military Djajakusuma edited the weekly Tentara; he also contributed articles to Ismail's cultural magazine Arena.[16] Despite his involvement in the press, he did not abandon the theatre; with Surjo Sumanto, he established a troupe which performed for soldiers and raised morale, sometimes travelling to the frontlines.[17]Djajakusuma was hired by the Ministry of Information in 1947 to teach at a school for the p
Relazione da Anonimo11 day agoSconosciuto
In 1954 Djajakusuma directed two comedies, Putri dari Medan (Daughter of Medan) and Mertua Sinting (Insane Parents-in-Law). The first dealt with three young men who resolve to never marry, only for their strength to waver after meeting some women from Medan,[34] while the second followed a man who rejects his son's choice of spouse owing to her lack of noble descent, then unknowingly chooses the same woman to be his son's wife.[35] The following year Djajakusuma helped establish the Indonesian Screen Actors Guild (Persatuan Artis Film Indonesia; PARFI).[4] His only film that year, the drama Arni, told of a man who married another woman while his sick wife went to Padang, Sumatra, for treatment.[36]Djajakusuma studied cinematography in the United States, first at the University of Washington in Seattle, then at the University of Southern California's School of Cinematic Arts, from 1956 to 1957.[4] When he returned to Indonesia, he worked with Ismail and fellow Perfini employee Asrul Sani to establish the National Theatre Academy of Indonesia (Akademi Teater Nasional Indonesia), which promoted realism; the Indonesian dramatist Putu Wijaya described the realism promoted by the Academy as more Indonesian than Western,[37] while Djajakusuma considered inspired by the Italian neorealist movement.[38] Djajakusuma remained a lecturer with the academy until 1970, and his students considered him humorous and easy to approach.[39]Upon his return to Indonesia, Djajakusuma began work o
Relazione da Anonimo11 day agoSconosciuto
Attack during campaign eventBolsonaro was stabbed in the stomach on 6 September 2018 while campaigning and interacting with supporters in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais.[25] At first, his son Flávio stated that his father's wounds were only superficial and that he was recovering in the hospital.[26] But Flávio Bolsonaro later stated that the wounds seemed worse than initially thought[27] and that his father most likely would not be able to start campaigning personally before the end of the first round.[28] He tweeted about his father's condition, explaining that the perforation reached parts of the liver, lung, and intestine. He also stated that Bolsonaro had lost a large amount of blood, arriving at the hospital with severe hypotension (his blood pressure was 10/3, equivalent to 100/30 mmHg), but that he had since stabilized.[29][30][25] The attack was condemned by most of the other candidates in the presidential race from both sides of the political spectrum, and by Brazilian President Michel Temer.[31] The day after the attack, Bolsonaro was transferred to the Albert Einstein Israelite Hospital in São Paulo, after a request from his family. According to the doctors, the congressman was in an "extremely stable" condition.[32]Police arrested and identified the attacker as Adelio Bispo de Oliveira who claimed that he was on "a mission from God", according to security agents.[33] He had been a member of the Socialism and Liberty Party between 2007 and 2014. Hi
Relazione da Anonimo11 day agoSconosciuto
Early lifeDjajakusuma was born on 1 August 1918 in Parakan, Temanggung, Central Java, Dutch East Indies,[1] to a priyayi father, Raden Mas Aryo Djojokoesomo, and his wife Kasimah. Djajakusuma was the fifth child of six born to the couple, who lived comfortably off Djojokoesomo's salary as a government official.[2] While young he enjoyed watching stage performances, such as wayang puppetry and the traditional dance form tayuban;[3] at times he would furtively leave his home after bedtime to watch the productions. With his friends, he would act out the bedtime stories his mother told him.[4] When imported Hollywood films began to be screened, he was an avid viewer, watching Westerns and works starring Charlie Chaplin.[5]Owing to his position as the son of a nobleman, Djajakusuma was able to receive an education. He completed his studies in Semarang, Central Java,[6] graduating from the natural sciences programme at a senior high school there in 1941.[5] Although his family hoped that he would become a government employee like his father, Djajakusuma decided to go into the performing arts.[4] He returned to his hometown for a short time before realising that he would have little opportunity in Parakan. Accordingly, in early 1943 – almost a year after the Indies were occupied by the Empire of Japan – Djajakusuma moved to the colony's political centre, Jakarta, to find work.[7]Djajakusuma became employed at the Cultural Centre[b] as a translator and actor under Armijn Pane.[
Relazione da Anonimo11 day agoSconosciuto
Notable worksAakjær's notable novels, including Bondens Søn ("The Peasant's Son") (1899) and Vredens børn, et tyendes saga ("Children of Wrath: A Hired Man's Saga") (1904), reveal his staunch social commitment. The latter is a rural Danish answer to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle and in many ways caused the same effect but on a lesser scale.[2] He also wrote Hvor Bønder bor ("Where Farmers Live") (1908), Arbejdets Glæde ("The Joy of Work") (1914),[1] and Jens Langkniv (1915), about a Danish highwayman becoming a guerrilla fighter against the Germans in the 17th century. Many tales and short stories tell about the humble, bad life of farm boys and grooms and are written with a visceral anger and a fighting spirit. He also wrote some plays, such as Livet paa Hegnsgaard, ("Life at the Hegn Farm") (1907), and a biography on his predecessor, Steen Steensen Blicher.[1]Today, it is his poetry for which he is chiefly known. His poems, including the famous Fri felt ("Free Fields"; 1905), the Rugens sange ("Songs of the Rye"; 1906) and Heimdal's Wanderings (1924),[11] reveal his appreciation for the harvest. Because of their lyrical quality, many of these poems were used as settings for songs by various 20th Century Scandinavian composers, such as Carl Nielsen.[nb 2] In these songs he sings of the moors of his region, the areas of his childhood and the poor life in the country, often switching between harsh realism, a fresh love of nature and sentimental nostalgia.
Relazione da Anonimo11 day agoSconosciuto
Early lifeJair Bolsonaro was born on 21 March 1955 in the city of Glicério, São Paulo,[6] in the southeast region of Brazil, to Perci Geraldo Bolsonaro and Olinda Bonturi, both of Italian descent.[7]Bolsonaro has been married three times and has five children. His first wife was Rogéria Bolsonaro (with whom he has three sons: Flávio, Carlos and Eduardo). His second marriage was with Ana Cristina (with whom he has one son, Renan). His third and current wife is Michelle de Paula Firmo Reinaldo Bolsonaro, with whom he has his only daughter, Laura.[8] While working in Congress, Jair hired his wife as a secretary and over the next two years she received unusual promotions and her salary more than tripled. He had to fire her after the Supreme Federal Court ruled that nepotism is illegal in the public administration.[9] Bolsonaro and his current wife live in Barra da Tijuca, a wealthy area in Rio de Janeiro.Military careerIn his final years in high school, Bolsonaro was admitted to the prep school of the Brazilian Army and then was sent to the Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras (Brazil's main military academy), graduating in 1977. He briefly served in the army's parachutist units. His superior officers described him as "ambitious and aggressive".[10][2]His first rise to publicity came in 1986 when he gave an interview to the news magazine Veja. He complained about low salaries in the military and claimed that the High Command was firing officers due to budgetary cuts and no
Relazione da Anonimo11 day agoSconosciuto
NewspapersHis first job as a copy editor was at the Left Reform newspaper Politiken, which was run by Edvard Brandes. While working at this newspaper, Jeppe first made a name for himself with his Missionen og dens Høvding (The Mission and its Chieftain, 1897). In this piece, he attacks the concept of Christianity in general, and in particular goes after the Lutheran movement of Vilhelm Beck, called the Inner Mission. Here he postulates the danger involved in it, partly for the fact that it was becoming rural in nature and appearing in the areas that he loved.[6] Brandes was impressed with his work and promoted him to contributor (journalist). After some time he switched to the newspaper København, where he spent a few uneventful years. In 1899, after switching again, this time to Provinspresse, a social democratic publication, he became a parliamentary correspondent and started to make more of a name for himself. He remained with this paper until 1903. Later in life, Jeppe would not look back fondly on his time as a newspaper man, as he felt they robbed him of his productivity.[7] He did however keep a lasting relationship with Brandes, who continued to give good reviews to his books.In 1899, he wrote his first major literary piece, Bondens Søn (The Peasant's Son), in which in an autobiographical manner relates the story of a poor Jutlander, Jens. Jens moves to Copenhagen and battles with the conservative Christianity that was instilled in him by his grandfather. In time
Relazione da Anonimo12 day agoSconosciuto
NewspapersHis first job as a copy editor was at the Left Reform newspaper Politiken, which was run by Edvard Brandes. While working at this newspaper, Jeppe first made a name for himself with his Missionen og dens Høvding (The Mission and its Chieftain, 1897). In this piece, he attacks the concept of Christianity in general, and in particular goes after the Lutheran movement of Vilhelm Beck, called the Inner Mission. Here he postulates the danger involved in it, partly for the fact that it was becoming rural in nature and appearing in the areas that he loved.[6] Brandes was impressed with his work and promoted him to contributor (journalist). After some time he switched to the newspaper København, where he spent a few uneventful years. In 1899, after switching again, this time to Provinspresse, a social democratic publication, he became a parliamentary correspondent and started to make more of a name for himself. He remained with this paper until 1903. Later in life, Jeppe would not look back fondly on his time as a newspaper man, as he felt they robbed him of his productivity.[7] He did however keep a lasting relationship with Brandes, who continued to give good reviews to his books.In 1899, he wrote his first major literary piece, Bondens Søn (The Peasant's Son), in which in an autobiographical manner relates the story of a poor Jutlander, Jens. Jens moves to Copenhagen and battles with the conservative Christianity that was instilled in him by his grandfather. In time
Relazione da Anonimo12 day agoSconosciuto
CrewEnam Djam di Jogja (Six Hours in Yogya; 1951) – as screenwriterEmbun (Dewdrop; 1951) – as director and screenwriterDosa Tak Berampun (Unforgivable Sin; 1951) – as screenwriterTerimalah Laguku (Take My Song; 1952) – as directorHarimau Tjampa (Tiger from Tjampa; 1953) – as director and screenwriterPutri dari Medan (Girl From Medan; 1954) – directorMertua Sinting (Insane Parents-in-Law; 1954) – as directorArni (1955) – as directorTjambuk Api (Whips of Fire; 1958) – as directorPak Prawiro (Mr. Prawiro; 1958) – as director and screenwriterPedjuang (Warriors for Freedom; 1960) – as production managerMak Tjomblang (Mrs. Tjomblang; 1960) – as director and screenwriterLahirnja Gatotkatja (Birth of Gatotkatja; 1960) – as director and screenwriterMasa Topan dan Badai (Time of Cyclones and Storms; 1963) – as directorRimba Bergema (Echoing Jungles; 1964) – as directorBimo Kroda (1967) – as directorMalin Kundang (Anak Durhaka) (Malin Kundang [Faithless Child]; 1971) – as directorApi Dibukit Menoreh (Gugurnya Tohpati) (Fire on Mount Menoreh [Death of Tohpati]; 1971) – as directorBang Kojak (Brother Kojak; 1977) – as producer
Relazione da Anonimo12 day agoSconosciuto
Early lifeJair Bolsonaro was born on 21 March 1955 in the city of Glicério, São Paulo,[6] in the southeast region of Brazil, to Perci Geraldo Bolsonaro and Olinda Bonturi, both of Italian descent.[7]Bolsonaro has been married three times and has five children. His first wife was Rogéria Bolsonaro (with whom he has three sons: Flávio, Carlos and Eduardo). His second marriage was with Ana Cristina (with whom he has one son, Renan). His third and current wife is Michelle de Paula Firmo Reinaldo Bolsonaro, with whom he has his only daughter, Laura.[8] While working in Congress, Jair hired his wife as a secretary and over the next two years she received unusual promotions and her salary more than tripled. He had to fire her after the Supreme Federal Court ruled that nepotism is illegal in the public administration.[9] Bolsonaro and his current wife live in Barra da Tijuca, a wealthy area in Rio de Janeiro.Military careerIn his final years in high school, Bolsonaro was admitted to the prep school of the Brazilian Army and then was sent to the Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras (Brazil's main military academy), graduating in 1977. He briefly served in the army's parachutist units. His superior officers described him as "ambitious and aggressive".[10][2]His first rise to publicity came in 1986 when he gave an interview to the news magazine Veja. He complained about low salaries in the military and claimed that the High Command was firing officers due to budgetary cuts and no
Relazione da Anonimo12 day agoSconosciuto
In 1977 Djajakusuma served on the jury of the Indonesian Film Festival (Festival Film Indonesia, or FFI).[f] While reading the decision, he collapsed and was rushed to the hospital, while Rosihan Anwar completed the reading.[64] Djajakusuma's neighbour and frequent collaborator Taufiq Ismail told reporters that it was not the first time Djajakusuma had collapsed.[65] Djajakusuma continued to suffer from bouts of sudden weakness for the rest of his life,[66] caused by high blood pressure.[14]Despite his rapidly failing health, Djajakusuma remained active in the arts. In 1980 he made his last film appearance, and his only role on the big screen, acting in Ismail Soebardjo's Perempuan dalam Pasungan (Woman in Stocks).[67] He and Sofia WD portrayed parents who regularly put their daughter in stocks to punish her for being disobedient;[68] in an interview with Suara Karya, Soebardjo recalled that, from the time he had written it, he had only considered Djajakusuma for the role.[69] Perempuan dalam Pasungan won the Citra Award for Best Film at the 1981 Indonesian Film Festival,[39] and Djajakusuma expressed an interest in making several further films; this was, however, never realised.[51] In 1983 Djajakusuma served as dean of the Faculty of Arts at IKJ,[70] and in 1984 he went to the Three Continents Festival in Nantes, France, where two of his films were shown to critical acclaim.[32]In early 1987 Djajakusuma's doctor diagnosed him with heart disease, which led Djajakusuma to
Relazione da Anonimo12 day agoSconosciuto
PoetryIn 1907, he turned a swath of land that he had purchased in 1905 into his farm, Jenle.[8] He then, that same year, married for the second time, this time to Nanna Krog, an artist.[9] This marriage was the opposite of his first, as it was happy and long. Together they had two children, Esben, a son, and Solvejg, a girl. 1908, saw the state issuing him an 800 kroner stipend annually, which along with his publishing money ensured financial security. In 1910, Jeppe started what would become an annual event, the Jenlefest, a folk festival. These would become famous for their mix of politics, literary figures, and farmers. They would continue until 1929. 1907, also saw him branch into the dramatic, as he wrote the piece, Livet paa Hegnsgaard: Bondekomedie i fire Akter (Life at Hegns Farm: Rural Comedy in Four Acts). The play was originally written (most of it) in 1901, but was rejected by the Folketeater (People's Theater) in Copenhagen. When a friend convinced him to finish in it 1907, it became a commercial success, even though he was not very happy with the actor's ability to capture the nuances of Jutland.[10] His next play, Ulvens Søn: Skuespil i fire Akter (The Wolf's Son: Play in Four Acts, 1909) brought with it social ideas similar to Vredens Børn. In 1911 he released what he felt was his best play, Naar Bønder elsker: Skuespil i femn Akter (When Peasant's Love: Play in Five Acts, 1911), which did not receive as good a reception as his earlier plays. His last t
Relazione da Anonimo12 day agoSconosciuto
NewspapersHis first job as a copy editor was at the Left Reform newspaper Politiken, which was run by Edvard Brandes. While working at this newspaper, Jeppe first made a name for himself with his Missionen og dens Høvding (The Mission and its Chieftain, 1897). In this piece, he attacks the concept of Christianity in general, and in particular goes after the Lutheran movement of Vilhelm Beck, called the Inner Mission. Here he postulates the danger involved in it, partly for the fact that it was becoming rural in nature and appearing in the areas that he loved.[6] Brandes was impressed with his work and promoted him to contributor (journalist). After some time he switched to the newspaper København, where he spent a few uneventful years. In 1899, after switching again, this time to Provinspresse, a social democratic publication, he became a parliamentary correspondent and started to make more of a name for himself. He remained with this paper until 1903. Later in life, Jeppe would not look back fondly on his time as a newspaper man, as he felt they robbed him of his productivity.[7] He did however keep a lasting relationship with Brandes, who continued to give good reviews to his books.In 1899, he wrote his first major literary piece, Bondens Søn (The Peasant's Son), in which in an autobiographical manner relates the story of a poor Jutlander, Jens. Jens moves to Copenhagen and battles with the conservative Christianity that was instilled in him by his grandfather. In time
Relazione da Anonimo12 day agoSconosciuto
ControversiesBolsonaro has expressed many far-right political views during his long political career.[52] He strongly advocates against the legalization of same-sex unions and same-sex marriage, whilst expressing statements that some people consider insulting, homophobic, violence-inciting,[53][54][55] misogynistic, sexist,[56][54][55] or racist[57][54][55] or anti-refugee.[58] Other controversial political stances expressed by Bolsonaro have been of the defense of the death penalty and of radical interventionism in Brazil by the military, along with an imposition of a Brazilian military government.[43][59]American journalist Glenn Greenwald called Bolsonaro "the most misogynistic, hateful elected official in the democratic world".[60] News.com.au wondered whether Bolsonaro was "the world’s most repulsive politician".[57] British news magazine The Economist referred to him as a "radical", "religious nationalist", a "right-wing demagogue", and "apologist of dictators".[61]Views on womenIn an interview with Zero Hora in 2015, Bolsonaro argued that men and women should not receive the same salaries, because women get pregnant; adding that he believes federal law mandating paid maternity leave harms work productivity.[62]In a public speech in April 2017, Bolsonaro said that he had five children, that the first four were male and that for the fifth he produced a daughter out of "a moment of weakness".[63]Bolsonaro arguing with Federal Deputy Maria do Rosário in th
Relazione da Anonimo12 day agoSconosciuto
Views on the Brazilian military dictatorshipThroughout his political career, Bolsonaro has made a number of admiring comments about the Brazilian military dictatorship which ruled the country from 1964 to 1985. He said in 1993, eight years after the return of democracy, that the military regime had "led to a more sustainable and prosperous Brazil".[2] He also praised Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori as a role model for his use of military intervention against the judiciary and legislature.[2]Speaking before his vote in favor of President Dilma Rousseff's impeachment, Bolsonaro paid homage to Colonel Brilhante Ustra, an agent of Brazil's military dictatorship, and announced on the floor of the Chamber of Deputies that he was dedicating his pro-impeachment vote to Ustra's memory. Ustra had headed the DOI-CODI torture unit where Rousseff was tortured during the military dictatorship. Left-wing deputy Jean Wyllys spat at him after his own statement during the same session. The congressman claimed to have suffered homophobic offenses from Jair Bolsonaro and his allies.[71][72]In a TV interview with Câmera Aberta in the 1990s, Bolsonaro said that if he ever became President, he would use this as an opportunity to shut down the National Congress and instigate a military coup himself:[73]"I have no doubts – I would begin the coup on the very first day! And I am sure that at least 90% of the people would commemorate or give me an ovation. The Congress today is good for not
Relazione da Anonimo12 day agoSconosciuto
Political careerIn 1988, he entered politics by getting elected city councilor in Rio de Janeiro by the Christian Democratic Party. In the 1990 elections, he was elected a federal congressman from the same party. He served four consecutive terms. He has been affiliated with several other Brazilian political parties over the years. In 2014, he was the congressman who gained the most votes in Rio de Janeiro, with 464,000 votes.In his 25 years of service in the Brazilian National Congress, he put forward at least 173 bills and one constitutional amendment, but failed to pass almost all his proposed laws.[13] According to Bolsonaro, who claims to be persecuted by the left wing parties, most congressmen do not vote according to their agenda, but "by who the author of the bill is".[14]In 2018, Bolsonaro abandoned the Social Christian Party and switched to the Social Liberal Party (PSL). Following his adhesion PSL abandoned its previous social liberal stances and moved to national conservative right-wing positions.2018 presidential campaignMain article: Jair Bolsonaro presidential campaign, 2018Logo used by Jair Bolsonaro 2018 presidential campaignOn 22 July 2018, Bolsonaro was officially nominated by the Social Liberal Party (PSL) as its presidential candidate for the 2018 election.[15] Bolsonaro was also endorsed by the Brazilian Labour Renewal Party. His coalition name was "God above all" (Deus acima de todos). Though contested by two lawsuits, the Superior Electoral Court of
Relazione da Anonimo12 day agoSconosciuto
In 1954 Djajakusuma directed two comedies, Putri dari Medan (Daughter of Medan) and Mertua Sinting (Insane Parents-in-Law). The first dealt with three young men who resolve to never marry, only for their strength to waver after meeting some women from Medan,[34] while the second followed a man who rejects his son's choice of spouse owing to her lack of noble descent, then unknowingly chooses the same woman to be his son's wife.[35] The following year Djajakusuma helped establish the Indonesian Screen Actors Guild (Persatuan Artis Film Indonesia; PARFI).[4] His only film that year, the drama Arni, told of a man who married another woman while his sick wife went to Padang, Sumatra, for treatment.[36]Djajakusuma studied cinematography in the United States, first at the University of Washington in Seattle, then at the University of Southern California's School of Cinematic Arts, from 1956 to 1957.[4] When he returned to Indonesia, he worked with Ismail and fellow Perfini employee Asrul Sani to establish the National Theatre Academy of Indonesia (Akademi Teater Nasional Indonesia), which promoted realism; the Indonesian dramatist Putu Wijaya described the realism promoted by the Academy as more Indonesian than Western,[37] while Djajakusuma considered inspired by the Italian neorealist movement.[38] Djajakusuma remained a lecturer with the academy until 1970, and his students considered him humorous and easy to approach.[39]Upon his return to Indonesia, Djajakusuma began work o
Relazione da Anonimo12 day agoSconosciuto
Notable worksAakjær's notable novels, including Bondens Søn ("The Peasant's Son") (1899) and Vredens børn, et tyendes saga ("Children of Wrath: A Hired Man's Saga") (1904), reveal his staunch social commitment. The latter is a rural Danish answer to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle and in many ways caused the same effect but on a lesser scale.[2] He also wrote Hvor Bønder bor ("Where Farmers Live") (1908), Arbejdets Glæde ("The Joy of Work") (1914),[1] and Jens Langkniv (1915), about a Danish highwayman becoming a guerrilla fighter against the Germans in the 17th century. Many tales and short stories tell about the humble, bad life of farm boys and grooms and are written with a visceral anger and a fighting spirit. He also wrote some plays, such as Livet paa Hegnsgaard, ("Life at the Hegn Farm") (1907), and a biography on his predecessor, Steen Steensen Blicher.[1]Today, it is his poetry for which he is chiefly known. His poems, including the famous Fri felt ("Free Fields"; 1905), the Rugens sange ("Songs of the Rye"; 1906) and Heimdal's Wanderings (1924),[11] reveal his appreciation for the harvest. Because of their lyrical quality, many of these poems were used as settings for songs by various 20th Century Scandinavian composers, such as Carl Nielsen.[nb 2] In these songs he sings of the moors of his region, the areas of his childhood and the poor life in the country, often switching between harsh realism, a fresh love of nature and sentimental nostalgia.
Relazione da Anonimo12 day agoSconosciuto
CrewEnam Djam di Jogja (Six Hours in Yogya; 1951) – as screenwriterEmbun (Dewdrop; 1951) – as director and screenwriterDosa Tak Berampun (Unforgivable Sin; 1951) – as screenwriterTerimalah Laguku (Take My Song; 1952) – as directorHarimau Tjampa (Tiger from Tjampa; 1953) – as director and screenwriterPutri dari Medan (Girl From Medan; 1954) – directorMertua Sinting (Insane Parents-in-Law; 1954) – as directorArni (1955) – as directorTjambuk Api (Whips of Fire; 1958) – as directorPak Prawiro (Mr. Prawiro; 1958) – as director and screenwriterPedjuang (Warriors for Freedom; 1960) – as production managerMak Tjomblang (Mrs. Tjomblang; 1960) – as director and screenwriterLahirnja Gatotkatja (Birth of Gatotkatja; 1960) – as director and screenwriterMasa Topan dan Badai (Time of Cyclones and Storms; 1963) – as directorRimba Bergema (Echoing Jungles; 1964) – as directorBimo Kroda (1967) – as directorMalin Kundang (Anak Durhaka) (Malin Kundang [Faithless Child]; 1971) – as directorApi Dibukit Menoreh (Gugurnya Tohpati) (Fire on Mount Menoreh [Death of Tohpati]; 1971) – as directorBang Kojak (Brother Kojak; 1977) – as producer
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Cerca di vendere drone tramite bonifico
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CrewEnam Djam di Jogja (Six Hours in Yogya; 1951) – as screenwriterEmbun (Dewdrop; 1951) – as director and screenwriterDosa Tak Berampun (Unforgivable Sin; 1951) – as screenwriterTerimalah Laguku (Take My Song; 1952) – as directorHarimau Tjampa (Tiger from Tjampa; 1953) – as director and screenwriterPutri dari Medan (Girl From Medan; 1954) – directorMertua Sinting (Insane Parents-in-Law; 1954) – as directorArni (1955) – as directorTjambuk Api (Whips of Fire; 1958) – as directorPak Prawiro (Mr. Prawiro; 1958) – as director and screenwriterPedjuang (Warriors for Freedom; 1960) – as production managerMak Tjomblang (Mrs. Tjomblang; 1960) – as director and screenwriterLahirnja Gatotkatja (Birth of Gatotkatja; 1960) – as director and screenwriterMasa Topan dan Badai (Time of Cyclones and Storms; 1963) – as directorRimba Bergema (Echoing Jungles; 1964) – as directorBimo Kroda (1967) – as directorMalin Kundang (Anak Durhaka) (Malin Kundang [Faithless Child]; 1971) – as directorApi Dibukit Menoreh (Gugurnya Tohpati) (Fire on Mount Menoreh [Death of Tohpati]; 1971) – as directorBang Kojak (Brother Kojak; 1977) – as producer
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In 1977 Djajakusuma served on the jury of the Indonesian Film Festival (Festival Film Indonesia, or FFI).[f] While reading the decision, he collapsed and was rushed to the hospital, while Rosihan Anwar completed the reading.[64] Djajakusuma's neighbour and frequent collaborator Taufiq Ismail told reporters that it was not the first time Djajakusuma had collapsed.[65] Djajakusuma continued to suffer from bouts of sudden weakness for the rest of his life,[66] caused by high blood pressure.[14]Despite his rapidly failing health, Djajakusuma remained active in the arts. In 1980 he made his last film appearance, and his only role on the big screen, acting in Ismail Soebardjo's Perempuan dalam Pasungan (Woman in Stocks).[67] He and Sofia WD portrayed parents who regularly put their daughter in stocks to punish her for being disobedient;[68] in an interview with Suara Karya, Soebardjo recalled that, from the time he had written it, he had only considered Djajakusuma for the role.[69] Perempuan dalam Pasungan won the Citra Award for Best Film at the 1981 Indonesian Film Festival,[39] and Djajakusuma expressed an interest in making several further films; this was, however, never realised.[51] In 1983 Djajakusuma served as dean of the Faculty of Arts at IKJ,[70] and in 1984 he went to the Three Continents Festival in Nantes, France, where two of his films were shown to critical acclaim.[32]In early 1987 Djajakusuma's doctor diagnosed him with heart disease, which led Djajakusuma to
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In 1954 Djajakusuma directed two comedies, Putri dari Medan (Daughter of Medan) and Mertua Sinting (Insane Parents-in-Law). The first dealt with three young men who resolve to never marry, only for their strength to waver after meeting some women from Medan,[34] while the second followed a man who rejects his son's choice of spouse owing to her lack of noble descent, then unknowingly chooses the same woman to be his son's wife.[35] The following year Djajakusuma helped establish the Indonesian Screen Actors Guild (Persatuan Artis Film Indonesia; PARFI).[4] His only film that year, the drama Arni, told of a man who married another woman while his sick wife went to Padang, Sumatra, for treatment.[36]Djajakusuma studied cinematography in the United States, first at the University of Washington in Seattle, then at the University of Southern California's School of Cinematic Arts, from 1956 to 1957.[4] When he returned to Indonesia, he worked with Ismail and fellow Perfini employee Asrul Sani to establish the National Theatre Academy of Indonesia (Akademi Teater Nasional Indonesia), which promoted realism; the Indonesian dramatist Putu Wijaya described the realism promoted by the Academy as more Indonesian than Western,[37] while Djajakusuma considered inspired by the Italian neorealist movement.[38] Djajakusuma remained a lecturer with the academy until 1970, and his students considered him humorous and easy to approach.[39]Upon his return to Indonesia, Djajakusuma began work o
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In preparation for his second film, Enam Djam di Jogja (Six Hours in Yogyakarta), Ismail recalled Djajakusuma to Jakarta. For the film, Djajakusuma helped Ismail adapt the General Assault of 1 March 1949 for the screen. Production was completed on a low budget; Djajakusuma later recalled that their camera had to be powered by a car battery.[24] Despite this and other difficulties, Djajakusuma stayed on after the film's completion, completing another work for Perfini, Dosa Tak Berampun (Unforgivable Sin), later that year. Ismail served as director for this film, about a man who leaves his family after he is transfixed by the smile of a waitress.[25]While Ismail, who remained head of Perfini, went abroad to study cinematography at the School of Theater, Film and Television at the University of California, Los Angeles, Djajakusuma began taking a larger role in Perfini. He made his directorial debut in 1952 with Embun (Dewdrop), which showed the psychological troubles faced by soldiers upon returning to their village after the revolution.[26] The film was shot in Wonosari, at the time in the middle of a drought, to provide a visual metaphor for the barren souls of the warriors.[27] Because of its depiction of traditional superstitions, the film had trouble with both the censorship bureau and critics; superstition was considered incompatible with the new republic's need for modernisation.[28] The release of Embun made Djajakusuma one of four directors to work for Perfini; the ot
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Indonesian National RevolutionPresident Sukarno proclaimed Indonesia's independence on 17 August 1945, days after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Expecting the Dutch colonial government to return, Djajakusuma and Ismail helped establish the Independent Artists (Seniman Merdeka) as a form of resistance. The group travelled throughout the city, spreading news of Indonesia's proclaimed independence while performing from an open-air truck. After the arrival of the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration, the group sometimes attempted to spy on the Europeans or hide information which would be considered useful to the returning Dutch forces. Owing to this dangerous work, Djajakusuma began carrying a pistol, and went to Banten to ask a kyai to make him impervious to bullets.[12]In early 1946, with the Dutch colonial forces in control of Jakarta, Djajakusuma fled to the new national capital at Yogyakarta.[13] There, he spent a time with the national news agency Antara[14] before joining the military's educational division, rising to the rank of captain.[15] For the military Djajakusuma edited the weekly Tentara; he also contributed articles to Ismail's cultural magazine Arena.[16] Despite his involvement in the press, he did not abandon the theatre; with Surjo Sumanto, he established a troupe which performed for soldiers and raised morale, sometimes travelling to the frontlines.[17]Djajakusuma was hired by the Ministry of Information in 1947 to teach at a school for the p
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Notable worksAakjær's notable novels, including Bondens Søn ("The Peasant's Son") (1899) and Vredens børn, et tyendes saga ("Children of Wrath: A Hired Man's Saga") (1904), reveal his staunch social commitment. The latter is a rural Danish answer to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle and in many ways caused the same effect but on a lesser scale.[2] He also wrote Hvor Bønder bor ("Where Farmers Live") (1908), Arbejdets Glæde ("The Joy of Work") (1914),[1] and Jens Langkniv (1915), about a Danish highwayman becoming a guerrilla fighter against the Germans in the 17th century. Many tales and short stories tell about the humble, bad life of farm boys and grooms and are written with a visceral anger and a fighting spirit. He also wrote some plays, such as Livet paa Hegnsgaard, ("Life at the Hegn Farm") (1907), and a biography on his predecessor, Steen Steensen Blicher.[1]Today, it is his poetry for which he is chiefly known. His poems, including the famous Fri felt ("Free Fields"; 1905), the Rugens sange ("Songs of the Rye"; 1906) and Heimdal's Wanderings (1924),[11] reveal his appreciation for the harvest. Because of their lyrical quality, many of these poems were used as settings for songs by various 20th Century Scandinavian composers, such as Carl Nielsen.[nb 2] In these songs he sings of the moors of his region, the areas of his childhood and the poor life in the country, often switching between harsh realism, a fresh love of nature and sentimental nostalgia.
Relazione da Anonimo8 day agoSconosciuto
In 1954 Djajakusuma directed two comedies, Putri dari Medan (Daughter of Medan) and Mertua Sinting (Insane Parents-in-Law). The first dealt with three young men who resolve to never marry, only for their strength to waver after meeting some women from Medan,[34] while the second followed a man who rejects his son's choice of spouse owing to her lack of noble descent, then unknowingly chooses the same woman to be his son's wife.[35] The following year Djajakusuma helped establish the Indonesian Screen Actors Guild (Persatuan Artis Film Indonesia; PARFI).[4] His only film that year, the drama Arni, told of a man who married another woman while his sick wife went to Padang, Sumatra, for treatment.[36]Djajakusuma studied cinematography in the United States, first at the University of Washington in Seattle, then at the University of Southern California's School of Cinematic Arts, from 1956 to 1957.[4] When he returned to Indonesia, he worked with Ismail and fellow Perfini employee Asrul Sani to establish the National Theatre Academy of Indonesia (Akademi Teater Nasional Indonesia), which promoted realism; the Indonesian dramatist Putu Wijaya described the realism promoted by the Academy as more Indonesian than Western,[37] while Djajakusuma considered inspired by the Italian neorealist movement.[38] Djajakusuma remained a lecturer with the academy until 1970, and his students considered him humorous and easy to approach.[39]Upon his return to Indonesia, Djajakusuma began work o
Relazione da Anonimo8 day agoSconosciuto
In 1954 Djajakusuma directed two comedies, Putri dari Medan (Daughter of Medan) and Mertua Sinting (Insane Parents-in-Law). The first dealt with three young men who resolve to never marry, only for their strength to waver after meeting some women from Medan,[34] while the second followed a man who rejects his son's choice of spouse owing to her lack of noble descent, then unknowingly chooses the same woman to be his son's wife.[35] The following year Djajakusuma helped establish the Indonesian Screen Actors Guild (Persatuan Artis Film Indonesia; PARFI).[4] His only film that year, the drama Arni, told of a man who married another woman while his sick wife went to Padang, Sumatra, for treatment.[36]Djajakusuma studied cinematography in the United States, first at the University of Washington in Seattle, then at the University of Southern California's School of Cinematic Arts, from 1956 to 1957.[4] When he returned to Indonesia, he worked with Ismail and fellow Perfini employee Asrul Sani to establish the National Theatre Academy of Indonesia (Akademi Teater Nasional Indonesia), which promoted realism; the Indonesian dramatist Putu Wijaya described the realism promoted by the Academy as more Indonesian than Western,[37] while Djajakusuma considered inspired by the Italian neorealist movement.[38] Djajakusuma remained a lecturer with the academy until 1970, and his students considered him humorous and easy to approach.[39]Upon his return to Indonesia, Djajakusuma began work o
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Views on the Brazilian military dictatorshipThroughout his political career, Bolsonaro has made a number of admiring comments about the Brazilian military dictatorship which ruled the country from 1964 to 1985. He said in 1993, eight years after the return of democracy, that the military regime had "led to a more sustainable and prosperous Brazil".[2] He also praised Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori as a role model for his use of military intervention against the judiciary and legislature.[2]Speaking before his vote in favor of President Dilma Rousseff's impeachment, Bolsonaro paid homage to Colonel Brilhante Ustra, an agent of Brazil's military dictatorship, and announced on the floor of the Chamber of Deputies that he was dedicating his pro-impeachment vote to Ustra's memory. Ustra had headed the DOI-CODI torture unit where Rousseff was tortured during the military dictatorship. Left-wing deputy Jean Wyllys spat at him after his own statement during the same session. The congressman claimed to have suffered homophobic offenses from Jair Bolsonaro and his allies.[71][72]In a TV interview with Câmera Aberta in the 1990s, Bolsonaro said that if he ever became President, he would use this as an opportunity to shut down the National Congress and instigate a military coup himself:[73]"I have no doubts – I would begin the coup on the very first day! And I am sure that at least 90% of the people would commemorate or give me an ovation. The Congress today is good for not
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Political careerIn 1988, he entered politics by getting elected city councilor in Rio de Janeiro by the Christian Democratic Party. In the 1990 elections, he was elected a federal congressman from the same party. He served four consecutive terms. He has been affiliated with several other Brazilian political parties over the years. In 2014, he was the congressman who gained the most votes in Rio de Janeiro, with 464,000 votes.In his 25 years of service in the Brazilian National Congress, he put forward at least 173 bills and one constitutional amendment, but failed to pass almost all his proposed laws.[13] According to Bolsonaro, who claims to be persecuted by the left wing parties, most congressmen do not vote according to their agenda, but "by who the author of the bill is".[14]In 2018, Bolsonaro abandoned the Social Christian Party and switched to the Social Liberal Party (PSL). Following his adhesion PSL abandoned its previous social liberal stances and moved to national conservative right-wing positions.2018 presidential campaignMain article: Jair Bolsonaro presidential campaign, 2018Logo used by Jair Bolsonaro 2018 presidential campaignOn 22 July 2018, Bolsonaro was officially nominated by the Social Liberal Party (PSL) as its presidential candidate for the 2018 election.[15] Bolsonaro was also endorsed by the Brazilian Labour Renewal Party. His coalition name was "God above all" (Deus acima de todos). Though contested by two lawsuits, the Superior Electoral Court of
Relazione da Anonimo10 day agoSconosciuto
The OatsJeppe Aakjær 1908Here I stand with tinkling bells galore,Twenty on each straw, I think, or more.But the farmer, bless his honest soul,Calls me oats and speaks of twenty fold.I was sown while happy birds in springMade with joyful song the welkin ring.Bumble bees in wild and tumbling race,In the mellow sunshine droned the bass.Growing up in sunny morning dewThat sweet Symphony within me grew.He who listens humbly while I ring,Hears the echo of the songs of spring.Cold, unfeeling hearts can never seeAnything but cattle-feed in me.I am more than food for hungry jaws,I am song of birds on golden straws.I am friends with everything that grows,Friends with every gentle wind that blows,Friends with waving trees and summer skies,Friends with daisies and with butterflies.When the sun goes down, its parting smileLingers on my golden head a while,And when evening bells ring out, I tooTinkle, standing tip-toe in the dew.I am ringing children to their beds,Ringing up the mist that slowly spreads,Ringing peace, as busy day departs,Into humble homes and pious hearts.Jeppe AakjærEnglish lyrics by S.D. Rodholm
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Notable worksAakjær's notable novels, including Bondens Søn ("The Peasant's Son") (1899) and Vredens børn, et tyendes saga ("Children of Wrath: A Hired Man's Saga") (1904), reveal his staunch social commitment. The latter is a rural Danish answer to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle and in many ways caused the same effect but on a lesser scale.[2] He also wrote Hvor Bønder bor ("Where Farmers Live") (1908), Arbejdets Glæde ("The Joy of Work") (1914),[1] and Jens Langkniv (1915), about a Danish highwayman becoming a guerrilla fighter against the Germans in the 17th century. Many tales and short stories tell about the humble, bad life of farm boys and grooms and are written with a visceral anger and a fighting spirit. He also wrote some plays, such as Livet paa Hegnsgaard, ("Life at the Hegn Farm") (1907), and a biography on his predecessor, Steen Steensen Blicher.[1]Today, it is his poetry for which he is chiefly known. His poems, including the famous Fri felt ("Free Fields"; 1905), the Rugens sange ("Songs of the Rye"; 1906) and Heimdal's Wanderings (1924),[11] reveal his appreciation for the harvest. Because of their lyrical quality, many of these poems were used as settings for songs by various 20th Century Scandinavian composers, such as Carl Nielsen.[nb 2] In these songs he sings of the moors of his region, the areas of his childhood and the poor life in the country, often switching between harsh realism, a fresh love of nature and sentimental nostalgia.
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PoetryIn 1907, he turned a swath of land that he had purchased in 1905 into his farm, Jenle.[8] He then, that same year, married for the second time, this time to Nanna Krog, an artist.[9] This marriage was the opposite of his first, as it was happy and long. Together they had two children, Esben, a son, and Solvejg, a girl. 1908, saw the state issuing him an 800 kroner stipend annually, which along with his publishing money ensured financial security. In 1910, Jeppe started what would become an annual event, the Jenlefest, a folk festival. These would become famous for their mix of politics, literary figures, and farmers. They would continue until 1929. 1907, also saw him branch into the dramatic, as he wrote the piece, Livet paa Hegnsgaard: Bondekomedie i fire Akter (Life at Hegns Farm: Rural Comedy in Four Acts). The play was originally written (most of it) in 1901, but was rejected by the Folketeater (People's Theater) in Copenhagen. When a friend convinced him to finish in it 1907, it became a commercial success, even though he was not very happy with the actor's ability to capture the nuances of Jutland.[10] His next play, Ulvens Søn: Skuespil i fire Akter (The Wolf's Son: Play in Four Acts, 1909) brought with it social ideas similar to Vredens Børn. In 1911 he released what he felt was his best play, Naar Bønder elsker: Skuespil i femn Akter (When Peasant's Love: Play in Five Acts, 1911), which did not receive as good a reception as his earlier plays. His last t
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Literary SuccessAakjær tried to get the publishing firm of Gyldendal to partner with him, but was initially rebuffed, even though he was sought after by one of its editors, Peter Nansen. Instead he found a local bookstore owner, V. Oscar Søtofte, who published his first novel. Soon thereafter, he released a collection of earlier writing, Derude fra Kjærne (Out There from the Watering Holes, 1899). In time a rift formed between the two over a couple of issues. First, Aakjær did not like the choice of covers that Oscar had chosen. Second, he felt that the marketing ability of Oscar was severely limited, and finally, when Jeppe wanted to release a collection of shorts stories as a single book, Oscar objected and instead broke it into two.[nb 1] The collection, Vadmelsfolk: Hedefortællinger (Homespunfolk: Heath Stories, 1900) was released around Christmas 1900, but saw lackluster sales which forced Jeppe to seek a new publisher.[7]Gyldendal, who now had seen the strength of his writing had no problem forming a relationship with Jeppe, and they started by releasing the second of the short story collection, Fjandboer: Fortællingen fra Heden (Fjand Dwellers: Stories from Heden, 1901). Over time nearly all of his remaining books were to be published by Gyldendal, with one notable exception, Pigen fra Limfjorden: Roman (The Girl from Limfjord: Novel, 1921), which he published with a small publisher, Danske Forfatteres Forlag.[7] His relationship with Gyldendal was not always goo
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NewspapersHis first job as a copy editor was at the Left Reform newspaper Politiken, which was run by Edvard Brandes. While working at this newspaper, Jeppe first made a name for himself with his Missionen og dens Høvding (The Mission and its Chieftain, 1897). In this piece, he attacks the concept of Christianity in general, and in particular goes after the Lutheran movement of Vilhelm Beck, called the Inner Mission. Here he postulates the danger involved in it, partly for the fact that it was becoming rural in nature and appearing in the areas that he loved.[6] Brandes was impressed with his work and promoted him to contributor (journalist). After some time he switched to the newspaper København, where he spent a few uneventful years. In 1899, after switching again, this time to Provinspresse, a social democratic publication, he became a parliamentary correspondent and started to make more of a name for himself. He remained with this paper until 1903. Later in life, Jeppe would not look back fondly on his time as a newspaper man, as he felt they robbed him of his productivity.[7] He did however keep a lasting relationship with Brandes, who continued to give good reviews to his books.In 1899, he wrote his first major literary piece, Bondens Søn (The Peasant's Son), in which in an autobiographical manner relates the story of a poor Jutlander, Jens. Jens moves to Copenhagen and battles with the conservative Christianity that was instilled in him by his grandfather. In time
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Early worksWhile in Copenhagen for school, he became enamored with the big city and its cultural opportunities. Here he began to be influenced by other writers such as Brandes and Hørup, and also by politicians such as Jens Busk.[6] In 1886, he left Copenhagen to spend time with his family on the farm and on other farms. It was during this time that he also began to tour and lecture at the Folk High Schools. His lectures had a political twist to them and he tried to "wake the spirit of resistance" within the laborers and farmers. The government felt at times that he crossed the line and became seditious and at the age of 20, he was sent to jail for speaking in Viborg.[6] Being an outspoken socialist Aakjær joined the Social Democratic Party. He moved to Copenhagen and worked as a proofreader and journalist.[2] In the winter of 1887-1888 Jeppe travelled to Askov, where he studied at the folk school. From there he moved to Elbæk, where he stayed until 1890. At Elbæk, he taught at the school, but after the short taste of teaching decided that that was not the life for him.[6]1890 saw him drafted into the military, where he was initially placed in the infantry at Skive. After a period of time he was relocated to Copenhagen, which also did not last long. Six weeks after his initial conscription, he was discharged due to vision problems.[6] After his military career ended, he needed more money and tried his hand at teaching once again. He first returned to Elbæk into 1891, t
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EducationSchooling, whereas the government of Denmark had made it mandatory for all children, was not important to most rural families, his being no exception. He initially spent more time working on the farm than at school. This changed in 1882, when a teacher by the name of Niels Jakobsen started teaching at the school at Fly.[5] He convinced his parents to send him to Staby to attend one of the Folk High Schools. Then in 1884 his parents allowed him to travel to Copenhagen. He attended Blaagaard's Teacher's College. Here he studied intensively with Jakobsen to with the goal of obtaining his teacher degree. He did not finish as he left just after his preliminary exams.[5]Early writingHis first experience with writing was while he attended the school in Staby, in 1883. He started contributing material for the journal Skattegraveren (The Treasure Hunter), which was edited by Evald Tang Kristensen.[5] This journal specialized in folklore, of which Jeppe was fascinated with. Jeppe had, over the course of his youth, heard and remembered many stories, anecdotes, fables, and other literary short pieces. He, over the course of the next several years gathered and submitted hundreds of submissions. In all, over three hundred narratives, riddles, and songs were submitted, the majority of which were published. His book Jydske Folkeminder VIII: Sagn og Overtro fra Jylland (Jutlandic Folklore VIII: Legends and Superstitions from Jutland, 1886) contained at least 77 of these prior publi
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Biographical informationJeppe was born on September 10, 1866, in Fly, Jutland,[2] a small village near Skive.[4] He came from a large family as he was one of eight, born to Jens Peder Jensen and Catherine Marie.[5] His father was a farmer and Jeppe at a young age learned the family trade. This sowed the seeds of his poetic existence. His early jobs were that of a herdsboy, someone that tends cattle. His father was a hard worker and a supporter of the Venstre party (liberal). This influenced Jeppe as he showed strong liberal leanings early on. At the farm that the family lived, his grandfather also resided, in an arrangement called aftægt, which was where the parents cede ownership of the farm/business in trade for room and board until death. This system did not work well in many cases, and in Jeppe's family's case, his grandfather was tyrannical, a drinker, and foul-mouthed. This also influenced him, as in later years he would rail against the system in his writing, in particular in Paa Aftægt: En Fortælling (In Retirement: A Story, 1907), Vredens Børn: Et Tyendes Saga (Children of Wrath: A Servant's Saga, 1907), and Bondens Søn: Skildringer fra Fjends Herred (The Peasant's Son: Pictures from the Fjend District, 1899)
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LifeMorgan was born in 1545 at Tŷ Mawr Wybrnant, in the parish of Penmachno, near Betws-y-Coed, North Wales (there is some doubt about the exact year of his birth, his memorial in Cambridge, for example, gives 1541).[1][a] As his father was a tenant of the Gwydir estate, he was probably educated at Gwydir Castle, near Llanrwst, along with the children of the Wynn family.[4] Morgan then attended St John's College, Cambridge where he studied a range of subjects including philosophy, mathematics and Greek. He graduated BA in 1568 and MA in 1571, before seven years of Biblical studies, including a study of the Bible in Greek, Hebrew and Aramaic and the works of the Church Fathers and contemporary Protestant theologians. He graduated BD in 1578 and DD in 1583.[5] At Cambridge he was a contemporary of the Welsh poet Edmwnd Prys, who later assisted Morgan with his translation of the Bible.In addition to his scholarly pursuits, Morgan was a clergyman of the Church of England, having been ordained in 1568 by the Bishop of Ely. His first clerical benefice was the parish of Llanbadarn Fawr, which he gained in 1572; in 1575 he moved to Welshpool, and then became vicar of Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant in 1578, where he made his Bible translation. In 1579 he became rector of Llanfyllin, which he held concurrently with being vicar of nearby Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant.[6]Morgan was still at Cambridge when William Salesbury published his Welsh New Testament in 1567.[7] While he was pleased that this
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In the Republic of India, a governor is the constitutional head of each of the twenty-nine states. The governor is appointed by the President of India for a term of five years, and holds office at the President's pleasure. The governor is de jure head of the state government; all its executive actions are taken in the governor's name. However, the governor must act on the advice of the popularly elected council of ministers, headed by the chief minister, which thus holds de facto executive authority at the state-level. The Constitution of India also empowers the governor to act upon his or her own discretion, such as the ability to appoint or dismiss a ministry, recommend President's rule, or reserve bills for the President's assent. Over the years, the exercise of these discretionary powers have given rise to conflict between the elected chief minister and the central government–appointed governor.[1]The union territories of Andaman and Nicobar, Delhi and Puducherry are headed by lieutenant-governors. Since Delhi and Puducherry have a measure of self-government with an elected legislature and council of ministers, the role of the lieutenant-governor there is a mostly ceremonial one, akin to that of a state's governor. The other four union territories—Chandigarh; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Daman and Diu; and Lakshadweep—are governed by an administrator. Unlike the administrators of other territories, who are drawn from the Indian Administrative Service, since 1985 the
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Accusations of homophobiaThe LGBT-interest magazine The Advocate has called Bolsonaro "Brazil's biggest homophobe".[74]In a June 2011, interview with Playboy, Bolsonaro said that "I would be incapable of loving a gay son," and added that he would prefer any son of his "to die in an accident..."[75] In the same interview, Bolsonaro went on to say that if a gay couple moved in next door to him, it would lower the market value of his house. In a July 2011 interview with the magazine Época, Bolsonaro said that he would "fight to prevent the distribution of the 'gay kit' [a set of guidelines proposed by UNESCO to promote the rights of the LGBT community] in primary schools, because their intention is to promote homosexuality, which is an affront to the family structure, and if that makes me prejudiced, then I'm prejudiced and very proud of it."[43] In the 2013 BBC documentary "Out There," by British actor Stephen Fry, Bolsonaro said that "no father is ever proud of having a gay son," and that "we Brazilians do not like homosexuals."[76]In an 2011 interview with Jornal de Notícias, Bolsonaro linked homosexuality to pedophilia, claiming that "many of the children who are adopted by gay couples will be abused by these couples." He further argued that Brazil does not need legislation specifically targeting homophobia, because "most homosexuals are murdered by their respective pimps at hours when good citizens are already asleep."[77] In a May 2002 interview wit
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Views on the Brazilian military dictatorshipThroughout his political career, Bolsonaro has made a number of admiring comments about the Brazilian military dictatorship which ruled the country from 1964 to 1985. He said in 1993, eight years after the return of democracy, that the military regime had "led to a more sustainable and prosperous Brazil".[2] He also praised Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori as a role model for his use of military intervention against the judiciary and legislature.[2]Speaking before his vote in favor of President Dilma Rousseff's impeachment, Bolsonaro paid homage to Colonel Brilhante Ustra, an agent of Brazil's military dictatorship, and announced on the floor of the Chamber of Deputies that he was dedicating his pro-impeachment vote to Ustra's memory. Ustra had headed the DOI-CODI torture unit where Rousseff was tortured during the military dictatorship. Left-wing deputy Jean Wyllys spat at him after his own statement during the same session. The congressman claimed to have suffered homophobic offenses from Jair Bolsonaro and his allies.[71][72]In a TV interview with Câmera Aberta in the 1990s, Bolsonaro said that if he ever became President, he would use this as an opportunity to shut down the National Congress and instigate a military coup himself:[73]"I have no doubts – I would begin the coup on the very first day! And I am sure that at least 90% of the people would commemorate or give me an ovation. The Congress today is good for not
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ControversiesBolsonaro has expressed many far-right political views during his long political career.[52] He strongly advocates against the legalization of same-sex unions and same-sex marriage, whilst expressing statements that some people consider insulting, homophobic, violence-inciting,[53][54][55] misogynistic, sexist,[56][54][55] or racist[57][54][55] or anti-refugee.[58] Other controversial political stances expressed by Bolsonaro have been of the defense of the death penalty and of radical interventionism in Brazil by the military, along with an imposition of a Brazilian military government.[43][59]American journalist Glenn Greenwald called Bolsonaro "the most misogynistic, hateful elected official in the democratic world".[60] News.com.au wondered whether Bolsonaro was "the world’s most repulsive politician".[57] British news magazine The Economist referred to him as a "radical", "religious nationalist", a "right-wing demagogue", and "apologist of dictators".[61]Views on womenIn an interview with Zero Hora in 2015, Bolsonaro argued that men and women should not receive the same salaries, because women get pregnant; adding that he believes federal law mandating paid maternity leave harms work productivity.[62]In a public speech in April 2017, Bolsonaro said that he had five children, that the first four were male and that for the fifth he produced a daughter out of "a moment of weakness".[63]Bolsonaro arguing with Federal Deputy Maria do Rosário in th
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Political viewsBolsonaro in 2010Bolsonaro's political views have been described as nationalist and populist in nature, and he is often described by the media as an advocate of far-right policies.[35][36] His supporters, however, claim that his views are more aligned with traditional right-wing conservatism.[37] His electorate is mainly formed of young people between 16 and 24, the working middle to upper class in the southeast region of the country, conservatives in general, college graduates, some centrists, and the Christian right.[38]Bolsonaro is known for his strong opposition to left-wing policies. Most notably, he has been a vocal opponent of same-sex marriage,[39] abortion,[40] affirmative action (particularly racial quotas),[41] immigration[42] (particularly from Haiti, Africa, and the Middle East, whom he once called "the scum of humanity"),[36] drug liberalization,[43] land reforms,[44] and secularism at the state level,[43] among other things.[45] He has also made statements in defense of the Brazilian military regime.[46][47] He claims that torture is a "legitimate practice" and says that he would change the Brazilian penal code and would try to pass new legislation regarding the introduction of life imprisonment and capital punishment, which is currently banned under the Brazilian Constitution of 1988.[48] He supports the privatization of state-owned companies and advocates free market policies,[49] although critics have stated that his policy-making record
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Attack during campaign eventBolsonaro was stabbed in the stomach on 6 September 2018 while campaigning and interacting with supporters in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais.[25] At first, his son Flávio stated that his father's wounds were only superficial and that he was recovering in the hospital.[26] But Flávio Bolsonaro later stated that the wounds seemed worse than initially thought[27] and that his father most likely would not be able to start campaigning personally before the end of the first round.[28] He tweeted about his father's condition, explaining that the perforation reached parts of the liver, lung, and intestine. He also stated that Bolsonaro had lost a large amount of blood, arriving at the hospital with severe hypotension (his blood pressure was 10/3, equivalent to 100/30 mmHg), but that he had since stabilized.[29][30][25] The attack was condemned by most of the other candidates in the presidential race from both sides of the political spectrum, and by Brazilian President Michel Temer.[31] The day after the attack, Bolsonaro was transferred to the Albert Einstein Israelite Hospital in São Paulo, after a request from his family. According to the doctors, the congressman was in an "extremely stable" condition.[32]Police arrested and identified the attacker as Adelio Bispo de Oliveira who claimed that he was on "a mission from God", according to security agents.[33] He had been a member of the Socialism and Liberty Party between 2007 and 2014. Hi
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Political careerIn 1988, he entered politics by getting elected city councilor in Rio de Janeiro by the Christian Democratic Party. In the 1990 elections, he was elected a federal congressman from the same party. He served four consecutive terms. He has been affiliated with several other Brazilian political parties over the years. In 2014, he was the congressman who gained the most votes in Rio de Janeiro, with 464,000 votes.In his 25 years of service in the Brazilian National Congress, he put forward at least 173 bills and one constitutional amendment, but failed to pass almost all his proposed laws.[13] According to Bolsonaro, who claims to be persecuted by the left wing parties, most congressmen do not vote according to their agenda, but "by who the author of the bill is".[14]In 2018, Bolsonaro abandoned the Social Christian Party and switched to the Social Liberal Party (PSL). Following his adhesion PSL abandoned its previous social liberal stances and moved to national conservative right-wing positions.2018 presidential campaignMain article: Jair Bolsonaro presidential campaign, 2018Logo used by Jair Bolsonaro 2018 presidential campaignOn 22 July 2018, Bolsonaro was officially nominated by the Social Liberal Party (PSL) as its presidential candidate for the 2018 election.[15] Bolsonaro was also endorsed by the Brazilian Labour Renewal Party. His coalition name was "God above all" (Deus acima de todos). Though contested by two lawsuits, the Superior Electoral Court of
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Early lifeJair Bolsonaro was born on 21 March 1955 in the city of Glicério, São Paulo,[6] in the southeast region of Brazil, to Perci Geraldo Bolsonaro and Olinda Bonturi, both of Italian descent.[7]Bolsonaro has been married three times and has five children. His first wife was Rogéria Bolsonaro (with whom he has three sons: Flávio, Carlos and Eduardo). His second marriage was with Ana Cristina (with whom he has one son, Renan). His third and current wife is Michelle de Paula Firmo Reinaldo Bolsonaro, with whom he has his only daughter, Laura.[8] While working in Congress, Jair hired his wife as a secretary and over the next two years she received unusual promotions and her salary more than tripled. He had to fire her after the Supreme Federal Court ruled that nepotism is illegal in the public administration.[9] Bolsonaro and his current wife live in Barra da Tijuca, a wealthy area in Rio de Janeiro.Military careerIn his final years in high school, Bolsonaro was admitted to the prep school of the Brazilian Army and then was sent to the Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras (Brazil's main military academy), graduating in 1977. He briefly served in the army's parachutist units. His superior officers described him as "ambitious and aggressive".[10][2]His first rise to publicity came in 1986 when he gave an interview to the news magazine Veja. He complained about low salaries in the military and claimed that the High Command was firing officers due to budgetary cuts and no
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Djajakusuma's film Harimau Tjampa garnered him the Best Screenplay Award at the 1954 Asian Film Festival.[66] His later film Bimo Kroda was recognised by the Indonesian Department of Information for promoting traditional culture.[80] In 1970 he received an Art Award from the Indonesian government for "his service to the State as the Main Promoter of the Development of Modern Drama".[g][66] At the 1987 Indonesian Film Festival, he received a special award for his contributions to the film industry,[51] and in November 2003 he was posthumously granted a Budaya Parama Dharma Award by President Megawati Sukarnoputri for his contributions to the development of Indonesian culture.[h][81]Critical reception has been positive. The award-winning director Teguh Karya cited the works of Djajakusuma, Usmar Ismail, and Asrul Sani as "legendary" and among his greatest influences.[82] Choreographer Bagong Kussudiardjo reportedly so respected Djajakusuma that he had named his son Djadoeg after the director.[83] According to a memorial in the newspaper Kompas, Djajakusuma was also dubbed a "living legend" during his visit to Nantes.[32] A later Kompas article records Djajakusuma's best-remembered works are Harimau Tjampa and Tjambuk Api. Those two works are those most often shown, owing to the fact that ready-to-use copies are stored at Sinematek Indonesia; his other surviving films are kept as negatives.
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Like Usmar Ismail, Djajakusuma was influenced by realism. However, while Ismail preferred to focus on national-level themes, Djajakusuma was more drawn to simple, locally relevant storylines with educational messages.[32] This realism carried over into Djajakusuma's work in wayang. The settings, traditionally drawn, were instead created as three-dimensional sets, including representations of trees, rocks, and water.[75] According to Soemardjono, who often edited Djajakusuma's films, the director enjoyed experimenting with new techniques to better convey his intentions.[32]Djajakusuma often included traditional arts in his films,[22] and two of them (Lahirnja Gatotkatja and Bimo Kroda) were based on traditional wayang stories and used wayang-inspired costumes and tempos.[76] This focus on aspects of traditional culture fell out of the mainstream after 1965, having been replaced by films about city life.[77] Djajakusuma's theatrical productions experimented with new storytelling techniques, adapting the traditional styles for the modern world.[75] As a lecturer teaching screenwriting and the history of theatre, Djajakusuma focused on Indonesian arts. He argued that Indonesians should rely on local culture, not continuously look towards the West.[14] In other areas he was mostly apolitical.[78]The Indonesian sociologist Umar Kayam, who had served on the Jakarta Art Council with Djajakusuma, described the director as highly disciplined. Biran described him as having a fiery te
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Final years and deathIn 1977 Djajakusuma served on the jury of the Indonesian Film Festival (Festival Film Indonesia, or FFI).[f] While reading the decision, he collapsed and was rushed to the hospital, while Rosihan Anwar completed the reading.[64] Djajakusuma's neighbour and frequent collaborator Taufiq Ismail told reporters that it was not the first time Djajakusuma had collapsed.[65] Djajakusuma continued to suffer from bouts of sudden weakness for the rest of his life,[66] caused by high blood pressure.[14]Despite his rapidly failing health, Djajakusuma remained active in the arts. In 1980 he made his last film appearance, and his only role on the big screen, acting in Ismail Soebardjo's Perempuan dalam Pasungan (Woman in Stocks).[67] He and Sofia WD portrayed parents who regularly put their daughter in stocks to punish her for being disobedient;[68] in an interview with Suara Karya, Soebardjo recalled that, from the time he had written it, he had only considered Djajakusuma for the role.[69] Perempuan dalam Pasungan won the Citra Award for Best Film at the 1981 Indonesian Film Festival,[39] and Djajakusuma expressed an interest in making several further films; this was, however, never realised.[51] In 1983 Djajakusuma served as dean of the Faculty of Arts at IKJ,[70] and in 1984 he went to the Three Continents Festival in Nantes, France, where two of his films were shown to critical acclaim.[32]In early 1987 Djajakusuma's doctor diagnosed him with heart disease, whic
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Towards the end of his time with Perfini, Djajakusuma again became active in traditional arts. He devoted considerable time towards the promotion of wayang. In 1967 he organised the National Wayang Festival,[14] which collapsed shortly afterwards owing to a lack of funds.[51] In 1967 he directed the wayang-inspired film Bimo Kroda for Pantja Murti Film,[52] which used the destruction of the Pandawa – brothers in the Hindu epic Mahābhārata – to represent the kidnappings and subsequent murders of five army generals during the 30 September Movement in 1965.[32] Djajakusuma's involvement with wayang continued into the early 1970s; he organised two Wayang Weeks, in 1970 and 1974, as well as a national wayang festival in 1977.[14] Furthermore, he established two wayang orang troupes, Jaya Budaya (1971) and Bharata (1973), hoping to save the ailing medium by modernising it.[53]Meanwhile, Djajakusuma helped promote art forms such as the Betawi lenong and Javanese ludruk over a period of several years.[54] He is particularly recognised for his revitalising lenong.[e] Beginning in 1968, Djajakusuma appeared on television as an advocate of lenong, which was then limited to rural villages and on the verge of dying out. He increased popular knowledge of the form while arguing for proper remuneration for performers.[55] Through the 1970s lenong was performed at Ismail Marzuki Hall, drawing considerable audiences,[56] and several lenong performers found mainstream acclaim in the film
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or Perfini);[22] its first production, Darah dan Doa (The Long March), which gave a fictionalised version of the Siliwangi Division's trek from Yogyakarta to West Java in 1948, was directed by Ismail and released in 1950.[23]Career with PerfiniIn preparation for his second film, Enam Djam di Jogja (Six Hours in Yogyakarta), Ismail recalled Djajakusuma to Jakarta. For the film, Djajakusuma helped Ismail adapt the General Assault of 1 March 1949 for the screen. Production was completed on a low budget; Djajakusuma later recalled that their camera had to be powered by a car battery.[24] Despite this and other difficulties, Djajakusuma stayed on after the film's completion, completing another work for Perfini, Dosa Tak Berampun (Unforgivable Sin), later that year. Ismail served as director for this film, about a man who leaves his family after he is transfixed by the smile of a waitress.[25]While Ismail, who remained head of Perfini, went abroad to study cinematography at the School of Theater, Film and Television at the University of California, Los Angeles, Djajakusuma began taking a larger role in Perfini. He made his directorial debut in 1952 with Embun (Dewdrop), which showed the psychological troubles faced by soldiers upon returning to their village after the revolution.[26] The film was shot in Wonosari, at the time in the middle of a drought, to provide a visual metaphor for the barren souls of the warriors.[27] Because of its depiction of traditional superstitions, th
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Career with PerfiniIn preparation for his second film, Enam Djam di Jogja (Six Hours in Yogyakarta), Ismail recalled Djajakusuma to Jakarta. For the film, Djajakusuma helped Ismail adapt the General Assault of 1 March 1949 for the screen. Production was completed on a low budget; Djajakusuma later recalled that their camera had to be powered by a car battery.[24] Despite this and other difficulties, Djajakusuma stayed on after the film's completion, completing another work for Perfini, Dosa Tak Berampun (Unforgivable Sin), later that year. Ismail served as director for this film, about a man who leaves his family after he is transfixed by the smile of a waitress.[25]While Ismail, who remained head of Perfini, went abroad to study cinematography at the School of Theater, Film and Television at the University of California, Los Angeles, Djajakusuma began taking a larger role in Perfini. He made his directorial debut in 1952 with Embun (Dewdrop), which showed the psychological troubles faced by soldiers upon returning to their village after the revolution.[26] The film was shot in Wonosari, at the time in the middle of a drought, to provide a visual metaphor for the barren souls of the warriors.[27] Because of its depiction of traditional superstitions, the film had trouble with both the censorship bureau and critics; superstition was considered incompatible with the new republic's need for modernisation.[28] The release of Embun made Djajakusuma one of four directors to work
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Indonesian National RevolutionPresident Sukarno proclaimed Indonesia's independence on 17 August 1945, days after the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Expecting the Dutch colonial government to return, Djajakusuma and Ismail helped establish the Independent Artists (Seniman Merdeka) as a form of resistance. The group travelled throughout the city, spreading news of Indonesia's proclaimed independence while performing from an open-air truck. After the arrival of the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration, the group sometimes attempted to spy on the Europeans or hide information which would be considered useful to the returning Dutch forces. Owing to this dangerous work, Djajakusuma began carrying a pistol, and went to Banten to ask a kyai to make him impervious to bullets.[12]In early 1946, with the Dutch colonial forces in control of Jakarta, Djajakusuma fled to the new national capital at Yogyakarta.[13] There, he spent a time with the national news agency Antara[14] before joining the military's educational division, rising to the rank of captain.[15] For the military Djajakusuma edited the weekly Tentara; he also contributed articles to Ismail's cultural magazine Arena.[16] Despite his involvement in the press, he did not abandon the theatre; with Surjo Sumanto, he established a troupe which performed for soldiers and raised morale, sometimes travelling to the frontlines.[17]Djajakusuma was hired by the Ministry of Information in 1947 to teach at a school for the p
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Early lifeDjajakusuma was born on 1 August 1918 in Parakan, Temanggung, Central Java, Dutch East Indies,[1] to a priyayi father, Raden Mas Aryo Djojokoesomo, and his wife Kasimah. Djajakusuma was the fifth child of six born to the couple, who lived comfortably off Djojokoesomo's salary as a government official.[2] While young he enjoyed watching stage performances, such as wayang puppetry and the traditional dance form tayuban;[3] at times he would furtively leave his home after bedtime to watch the productions. With his friends, he would act out the bedtime stories his mother told him.[4] When imported Hollywood films began to be screened, he was an avid viewer, watching Westerns and works starring Charlie Chaplin.[5]Owing to his position as the son of a nobleman, Djajakusuma was able to receive an education. He completed his studies in Semarang, Central Java,[6] graduating from the natural sciences programme at a senior high school there in 1941.[5] Although his family hoped that he would become a government employee like his father, Djajakusuma decided to go into the performing arts.[4] He returned to his hometown for a short time before realising that he would have little opportunity in Parakan. Accordingly, in early 1943 – almost a year after the Indies were occupied by the Empire of Japan – Djajakusuma moved to the colony's political centre, Jakarta, to find work.[7]Djajakusuma became employed at the Cultural Centre[b] as a translator and actor under Armijn Pane.[
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Djadoeg Djajakusuma[a] ([dʒaˈdʊʔ dʒajakuˈsuma]; 1 August 1918 – 28 October 1987) was an Indonesian film director and promoter of traditional art forms. Born to a nobleman and his wife in Temanggung, Central Java, Djajakusuma became interested in the arts at a young age, choosing to pursue a career in theatre. During the Japanese occupation from 1943 to 1945 he was a translator and actor, and in the four-year national revolution which followed he worked for the military's educational division, several news agencies, and in drama.In 1951, Djajakusuma joined the National Film Corporation (Perfini) at the invitation of Usmar Ismail. After making his directorial debut with Embun, Djajakusuma released a further eleven films with the company before leaving in 1964. He then returned to traditional Indonesian theatre, including wayang. Although he continued to direct movies independently of Perfini, most of his energies were dedicated to promoting traditional art forms and teaching cinematography. After over a decade of poor health and high blood pressure, Djajakusuma collapsed during a ceremony and died. He was buried in Karet Bivak Cemetery.The dedicated but easily angered Djajakusuma was influenced by Usmar Ismail's realist views, although he focused more on traditional aspects of life. His theatrical performances attempted to modernise traditional forms so that they could be better received in a modern world. He is credited with revitalising the Betawi theatre form lenon
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Molte riviste internazionali pubblicheranno case report, ma limitano il numero visualizzato nella tiratura perché questo ha un effetto negativo sul fattore di impatto del journal. Le segnalazioni di casi vengono spesso inserite nella parte Internet della rivista e spesso è ancora richiesto un abbonamento per accedervi. Tuttavia, ci sono alcuni che sono dedicati alla pubblicazione di case report da soli, e questi sono tutti ad accesso aperto. Il primo di questi a iniziare a pubblicare, nel 2001, fu Grand Rounds.[10] Altre pubblicazioni simili includono Case Reports in Medicine,[11] Journal of Medical Case Reports, Oncology Reports, Oncology Letters and Cases Journal; tutti pubblicano rapporti di casi con peer-review in tutte le aree della medicina. Cases Journal si è recentemente fusa con il Journal of Medical Case Reports ma mantiene comunque un portale internet indipendente. BMJ Case Reports è un caso di pubblicazione di riviste online con peer-review in tutte le discipline. I case report di radiologia e il Journal of Radiology Case Report sono riviste a revisione paritaria ad accesso aperto incentrate sull'imaging medico. Journal of Surgical Case Reports[12] è una rivista peer-reviewed ad accesso aperto che considera i casi clinici nel campo della chirurgia. Journal of Orthopedic Case Reports[13] è un giornale open access peer-reviewed. Oncology Reports e Oncology Letters pubblicano case report esclusivamente come open access, riviste peer-reviewed nel campo dell'on
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Un caso clinico è generalmente considerato un tipo di prova aneddotica.[2] Dati i loro intrinseci limiti metodologici, inclusa la mancanza di campionamento statistico, i case report sono posti ai piedi della gerarchia delle evidenze cliniche, insieme alle serie di casi.[3] Tuttavia, i case report hanno ruoli veramente utili nella ricerca medica e nella medicina basata sull'evidenza.[4] In particolare, hanno facilitato il riconoscimento di nuove malattie e degli effetti avversi dei trattamenti.[5] (Ad esempio, il riconoscimento del legame tra la somministrazione di talidomide alle madri e le malformazioni nei loro bambini è stato innescato dal rapporto di un caso particolare).[6] Le segnalazioni di casi hanno un ruolo nella farmacovigilanza. Possono anche aiutare a comprendere lo spettro clinico delle malattie rare e le insolite presentazioni di malattie comuni. Possono aiutare a generare ipotesi di studio, compresi i meccanismi plausibili della malattia. I casi clinici possono anche avere un ruolo nel guidare la personalizzazione dei trattamenti nella pratica clinica.I fautori di case report hanno delineato alcuni particolari vantaggi del formato. Case report e serie hanno un'alta sensibilità per rilevare novità e quindi rimangono uno dei capisaldi del progresso medico; forniscono molte nuove idee in medicina.[7] Mentre gli studi clinici randomizzati di solito controllano solo una variabile o pochissime variabili, raramente rispecchiano il quadro completo di una situazi
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Wedding at the Italian Chapel. - geograph.org.uk - 1511133.jpgLa Cappella italiana (in lingua inglese: Italian Chapel), conosciuta anche come il Miracolo del campo 60 (Miracle Of Camp 60), è un piccolo edificio di culto costruito sull'isoletta di Lamb Holm, nelle Isole Orcadi, in Scozia. La chiesetta venne realizzata tra il 1942 e il 1945 dai prigionieri di guerra italiani catturati in Nordafrica durante la seconda guerra mondiale e in seguito deportati sull'isola. Completata nel dopoguerra e restaurata negli anni 1960 e 1990, l'Italian Chapel è oggi un monumento classificato di categoria A e una popolare attrazione turistica dell'isola.La cappella venne costruita utilizzando gli scarsi materiali a disposizione dei prigionieri. Due baracche Nissen vennero unite una all'altra. L'interno ondulato venne ricoperto di cartongesso e l'altare e la ringhiera sono realizzati in calcestruzzo proveniente dal cantiere delle Churchill Barriers. La facciata, che nasconde la forma della baracca semicilindrica, è in cemento e fa apparire l'edificio come una chiesa tradizionale. La maggior parte della decorazione interna fu eseguita da Domenico Chiocchetti (1910-1999), originario di Moena in provincia di Trento, che rimase sull'isola anche dopo la fine della guerra per completare l'affresco dell'abside della cappella, che rappresenta la Madonna col Bambino, copia della celebre Madonna dell'Olivo del pittore genovese Nicolò Barabino. Il resto della cappella fu decorato da altri
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l colesterolo è una molecola organica appartenente alla classe dei lipidi e, più nel dettaglio, degli steroli. Esso riveste un ruolo particolarmente importante nella fisiologia degli animali. La molecola del colesterolo ha una struttura a quattro anelli rigidi ed è un costituente insostituibile delle membrane cellulari animali, oltre a essere un precursore degli ormoni steroidei, della vitamina D e degli acidi biliari. In patologia concorre alla formazione dei calcoli biliari e degli ateromi.La concentrazione di tale sostanza nel sangue è detta colesterolemia; poiché nel sangue il colesterolo è contenuto nelle lipoproteine plasmatiche, si usa, in termini più precisi, far riferimento al colesterolo plasmatico totale, al colesterolo LDL, al colesterolo HDL o al colesterolo non-HDL (che include il colesterolo trasportato da tutte le lipoproteine plasmatiche ad eccezione delle HDL). I valori della colesterolemia possono essere normali, bassi (ipocolesterolemia) o elevati (ipercolesterolemia), condizioni queste ultime potenzialmente pericolose per la salute umana.Livelli elevati di lipoproteine plasmatiche ricche di colesterolo (in particolare LDL) sono considerati tra i più importanti fattori di rischio cardiovascolare e possono provocare malattie molto gravi come l'aterosclerosi, in quanto esse si accumulano nelle arterie e avviano una reazione infiammatoria che conduce alla formazione di ateromi, il cui nucleo è ricco di colesterolo. Le placche aterosclerotiche posson
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George Armstrong Custer (New Rumley, 5 dicembre 1839 – Little Bighorn, 25 giugno 1876) è stato un militare statunitense.Fu ufficiale dell'esercito degli Stati Uniti d'America e comandante di reparti di cavalleria durante la guerra di secessione americana e le guerre indiane. Cresciuto nel Michigan e nell'Ohio, Custer venne ammesso a West Point nel 1857 dove si diplomò nel 1861 come ultimo della sua classe. Allo scoppio della guerra civile americana venne chiamato a servire nell'esercito dell'Unione.Durante la guerra civile si guadagnò una buona reputazione e il suo battesimo del fuoco avvenne nella prima battaglia di Bull Run del 21 luglio 1861. I suoi rapporti con alcuni importanti ufficiali favorirono la sua carriera, così come la sua capacità di comando di reparti di cavalleria. Venne promosso capitano nel 1864 e ottenne il rango temporaneo (brevet) di maggior generale dei volontari nel 1865. Alla conclusione della campagna di Appomattox, nella quale le sue truppe giocarono un ruolo decisivo, Custer fu presente alla resa del generale Robert E. Lee nelle mani del generale Ulysses S. Grant il 9 aprile 1865.Dopo la guerra di secessione ("la grande ribellione" scrisse nella sua autobiografia) Custer mantenne il grado brevet di maggior generale dei volontari fino al loro congedo definitivo nel 1866. Riassunto il grado di capitano che per progressione di carriera gli spettava, venne promosso tenente colonnello del 7th Cavalry Regiment nel luglio del 1866; nel 1867
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La Rinascita DC (dal 2016)A partire da giugno del 2016 avviene un rilancio dell'universo supereroistico DC e un riassetto dell'intero struttura editoriale[93]. Si decide di abbandonare la continuity nata dopo Flashpoint e che aveva azzerato la storia dei personaggi precedente al 2011. Si cerca quindi di unire la continuity precedente, prevalentemente quella post-Crisis (gli albi pubblicati dopo il 1986) con quanto accaduto nei cinque anni di storie del periodo The New 52 ovvero tra il 2011 e il 2015[93]. Questo permette da un lato di ridare ai personaggi DC un passato che era stato cancellato ma allo stesso tempo porta gli autori a scontrarsi con intricati paradossi. Per esempio la Justice League ricorda la morte del Superman post-Flashpoint ma si ritrova come membro il Superman "storico" così come è stato delineato negli anni ottanta e novanta a partire dalla miniserie Man of Steel di John Byrne. Ci si ritrova anche con dei personaggi doppi come ad esempio il Wally West (Flash III) del periodo post-Crisis, affiancato a quello afroamericano creato appositamente nei titoli pubblicati dopo il 2011. Il progetto risulta però ancora più audace in quanto vuole inglobare nella nuova continuity personaggi e storie finora ritenute al di fuori della timeline del principale Universo DC. Ne sono un esempio Watchmen di Alan Moore e i personaggi da lui creati per la defunta etichetta America's Best Comics, a cui si aggiunge un reboot dei titoli Wildstorm ad opera di Warren Ellis.
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Dopo soli quattro anni dal reboot del più longevo universo fumettistico, la DC annuncia la chiusura della linea The New 52 in occasione dello storico trasferimento dell'editore da New York a Burbank. A marzo 2015 vengono chiusi ulteriori 13 titoli delle serie regolari mensili a cui si aggiunge la cancellazione delle tre serie a periodicità settimanale, cioè The New 52: Future's End, Earth 2: World's End e Batman Eternal[84]. Gli ultimi titoli con il brand The New 52 vengono distribuiti il 1º aprile 2015[84][85]. Tra aprile e maggio esce la miniserie Convergence che (nella tradizione degli eventi editoriali denominati Crisis) porta una minaccia che sconvolge il multiverso DC[84]. Nel periodo che intercorre tra aprile e giugno tutte le serie regolari vengono sospese e sostituite da miniserie collegate a Convergence.[86][87][88] Questo serve ad aiutare lo spostamento definitivo della sede della DC Entetainment e per mettere fine al progetto New 52. A giugno si assiste ad un nuovo rilancio dell'universo DC (il secondo in 5 anni) con 21 nuove serie e miniserie che si aggiungono alle 27 non cancellate prima di Convergence (considerando le serie canoniche dell'Universo DC)[89]. Il rilancio avviene con l'uscita di una nuova serie dedicata alla Justice League of America dell'autore Bryan Hitch a partire dal 3 giugno 2015[89]. Le restanti 20 nuove pubblicazioni escono entro il 24 dello stesso mese[89]. Anche questo ennesimo tentativo fallisce e a fine 2015, tra i 30 albi pi
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Nel 2011, la Nelson e i suoi collaboratori prendono uno decisione che si pone come spartiacque tra la nuova DC Entertainment e lo storico passato della stessa casa editrice. Si decide infatti il reboot dell'intero parco testate dell'universo DC con tutti i titoli che ripartono dal numero 1[83]. A questo si aggiunge la cancellazione di (quasi) tutta la continuity precedente per ripresentare quindi i personaggi dalle loro origini, ringiovaniti nell'età e senza decenni di storie passate a cui fare riferimento[83]. Si propone infatti in maniera più radicale quanto già fatto negli anni ottanta dopo la miniserie-evento Crisi sulle Terre Infinite. In questo caso l'evento scatenante viene descritto nella miniserie Flashpoint alla quale segue il lancio di 52 serie tra agosto e settembre 2011, suddivise in 7 categorie quali gli albi Justice League, quelli legati a Superman, quelli per Batman, Green Lantern, la linea horror The Dark, The Edge per tematiche più violente e mature, e Young Justice per i teen-heroes.[83]. Persino serie storiche quali Action Comics, Detective Comics, Batman e Superman ripartono dal primo numero annullando la numerazione originale iniziata tra gli anni trenta e quaranta e mai interrotta[83]. La nuova linea denominata The New 52 debutta ufficialmente il 31 agosto 2011 con l'uscita dell'albo Justice League n. 1, scritto da Geoff Johns e disegnato Jim Lee[83]. Il duo Johns-Lee a cui si aggiunge il co-publisher Dan DiDio sono tra i principali artefici d
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DC Entertainment (dal 2009)Il logo della DC dal 2005 al 2012Nel corso del 2008 la DC ha subito una profonda ristrutturazione per meglio sfruttare le sinergie delle sue proprietà-personaggi a livello mediatico e cercare quindi di contrastare efficacemente il nuovo colosso multimediale di cui fa ora parte la rivale Marvel. Nel settembre 2009 la Warner Bros. (proprietaria della DC Comics) ha deciso di riorganizzare i vertici esecutivi della casa editrice. Dopo le dimissioni di Paul Levitz da presidente (lo è stato per 7 anni dal 2002 al 2009[79]), Diane Nelson è stata nominata a capo della nuova struttura editoriale denominata DC Entertainment[80]. Paul Levitz rimane come consulente e sceneggiatore mentre la Nelson lavorerà in collaborazione con Jeff Robinov, presidente della Warner Bros Pictures Group (la divisione che cura la produzione cinematografica della Warner). L'obiettivo è velocizzare la trasposizione di un fumetto in altri prodotti mediatici quali film, serie televisive o cartoni animati ed integrarli con operazioni di merchandising a livello globale. Non per caso Diane Nelson è stata Vicepresidente esecutivo e responsabile del Global brand management della Warner Bros. Entertainment per poi passare ad essere presidente della Warner Premier[81]. In queste funzione ha avuto lo scopo di ottimizzare a livello globale i marchi e le proprietà del gruppo Time Warner distingundosi particolarmente per la gestione del brand di Harry Potter[81]. Con la trasformazione da
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I successi cinematograficiDurante la gestione Levitz si ha un notevole aumento delle trasposizioni di fumetti in film cinematografici. In soli 7/8 anni vengono realizzati 9 lungometraggi su personaggi e storie dei comics DC[76]. Siamo nel periodo di esplosione del genere supereroistico al cinema e la DC (legata al gruppo Warner) riesce a cavalcare l'onda con grande successo[76]. Nonostante il proliferare di film della rivale Marvel (dagli X-Men del regista Bryan Singer all'Iron Man di Robert Downey Jr.), è la DC a realizzare (tramite Warner Bros) il film di maggior incasso di questo periodo (2002-2009). Si tratta di Batman: The Dark Knight del regista Christopher Nolan[76]. Il film è il secondo capitolo di una trilogia (diretta interamente da Nolan) che vede come primo capitolo Batman Begins (del 2005) e Batman: the Dark Knight rises (del 2012) come terza parte. A livello del solo mercato domestico (l'incasso nei cinema statunitensi) i film prodotti durante la presidenza Levitz hanno raccolto un cifra superiore un miliardo e trecento milioni di dollari, con un incasso medio per film di circa 152 milioni di dollari (per difetto)
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Nuova Dark Age per la DCNei primi anni duemila si torna a parlare di un tono più cupo e pseudo-realistico che caratterizza i supereroi DC (e non solo). Per questo ritorna il termine Dark Age (o Epoca oscura) dei comics per indicare questo periodo[75]. Tra l'altro il cinecomic di maggior successo del decennio si intitola The Dark Knight[76]. Questa ricerca di un maggior realismo, drammaticità e toni cupi non è una tematica nuova, si era già presentata durante la gestione Infantino negli anni settanta per poi raggiungere uno dei suoi apici tra la fine degli anni ottanta e i primi anni novanta. Con la gestione Levitz si ripropongono alcuni degli elementi narrativi della precedente Dark Age fumettistica[75]. Uno dei personaggi simbolo di questo mutamento è Batman (sia a livello fumettistico che cinematografico) e in particolare l'intreccio di storie create da Morrison sul Cavaliere Oscuro[77]. Nel 2006 su Batman n. 655 si introduce il personaggio di Damian Wayne (figlio di Bruce Wayne), uno degli elementi più destabilizzanti per i canoni delle storie di Batman degli ultimi decenni. A questo segue un progressivo crollo della stabilità narrativa dell'Uomo Pipistrello che porterà alla sua stessa morte nel 2009 durante Final Crisis[77][78]. Si ripete quello già successo con Superman a inizio anni novanta durante quella che alcuni canoni definiscono come prima Dark Age dei comics e che vide la morte dell'Uomo d'Acciao. Ma lo spostamento verso atmosfere Dark riguarda tutt
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La presidenza di Paul Levitz (2002-2009)Paul Levitz succede a Jenette Khan come presidente della DC nel 2002 e rappresenta un segno di continuità con il passato della casa editrice. La stessa Khan lo aveva assunto giovanissimo a fine anni settanta e da allora ha ricoperto diversi incarichi, da quello di aiuto supervisore, a scrittore, consulente creativo e vice-redattore. Ora si trova ad avere la responsabilità di traghettare la casa editrice nel nuovo secolo e le sfide risiedono nella rinata competitività (commerciale e artistica) della rivale Marvel di Joe Quesada e nella crescente attenzione delle produzioni cinematografiche verso i personaggi a fumetti.Rispettando quanto avvenuto durante l'ultima fase della gestione Khan, Levitz continua a rinnovare i personaggi nel rispetto della continuity post-Crisis e questo risulta da subito evidente con la miniserie Superman:Birthright di Mark Waid, la terza serie dedicata ai Teen Titans e il rilancio di Hal Jordan come Green Lantern (entrambe di Geoff Johns)[75]. In queste pubblicazioni si cerca di aggiornare i personaggi ma senza sconvolgere quanto fatto da John Byrne, Marv Wolfman altri autori negli anni ottanta e novanta[75]. Allo stesso tempo si accentua un progressivo avvicinamento ad atmosfere più cupe o dark delle storie DC. Emblematica è l'uscita della miniserie Identity Crisis nel 2004 e un prequel all'opera Il ritorno del Cavaliere Oscuro realizzata da Frank Miller (già autore dell'originale del 1986) con i dise
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Le ultime scelte di Jenette Khan (2000-2002)Gli anni duemila si aprono negli USA con le elezioni presidenziali e la DC decide di eleggere un suo presidente fittizio degli Stati Uniti, il quale estenderà la sua influenza su tutte le serie supereroistiche dell'editore[69]. La scelta è azzardata e ricade sul supercriminale Lex Luthor che grazie alla sua ricchezza, influenza e capacità di manipolazione arriva a sedersi nell'ufficio ovale della Casa Bianca[69]. Nella realtà viene invece eletto George W.Bush. In questi ultimi tre anni viene inoltre dato il via ad un ritorno o aggiornamento di alcuni personaggi classici, nel rispetto della loro continuity precedente. L'esempio più ecclatante e di successo è il ritorno di Oliver Queen come Green Arrow in una nuova serie scritta dal regista Kevin Smith[69]. Non si tratta di un reboot del personaggio che era morto in un albo del 1995 ma è lo stesso Oliver che si scopre essere stato resuscitato dal suo amico Hal Jordan. Si tenta anche un rilancio dei Nuovi Dei di Jack Kirby. La nuova serie su Apokolips e Genesis viene affidata a Walter Simonson che sviluppa una storia in continuity con l'epopea del Re dei comics[69]. Il tipo di approccio con il quale si cerca di rinvigorire i personaggi classici (inseriti nell'universo DC post-Crisis) continuerà anche nella gestione di Paul Levitz ma verrà poi bruscamente interrotta nel 2011 con il reboot dell'intero parco testate DC. Il 2002 vede l'uscita di due delle più famose, premi
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La fine della gestione KhanIl 6 febbraio 2002 viene annunciato che il presidente Jenette Khan, in carica da 21 anni (e da 26 come redattore capo), lascia il suo ruolo[70]. Il comunicato ufficiale porta la firma di Barry M.Meyer (Presidente della Warner Bros) e sottolinea l'importanza della Khan nel trasformare la DC in una industria editoriale multimediale che tocca ogni aspetto dell'entertainment[70]. Durante la sua gestione sono usciti dieci blockbuster cinenatografici da adattamenti di fumetti DC e diverse serie televisive live-action e d'animazione che hanno allargato enormemente la popolarità dei personaggi a fumetti[70]. Viene anche menzionato il lavoro di ristrutturazione editoriale che ha portato alla creazione di nuove etichette editoriali quali la Vertigo e la acquisizione dei Wildstorm Studios di Jim Lee[70]. Anche Jenette Khan rilascia delle dichiarazioni ufficiali in cui parla della sua esperienza alla DC come una parte fondamentale della sua vita e dice di aver raggiunto quasi tutti gli obbiettivi che si era fissata quando prese le redini dell'azienda e che ora vede come la sua famiglia[70]. Puntualizza inoltre il ruolo fondamentale svolto (da lei e i suoi collaboratori) nell'aver trasformato il medium fumettistico in una forma d'arte riconosciuta e accettata da un pubblico di ogni età (soprattutto i lettori adulti)[70]. Da queste dichiarazioni (e quelle successive) non traspare mai chiaramente se la Khan è stata messa da parte dalle nuove politiche dir
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Gli anni duemila (2000-2009)Il nuovo decennio vede il succedersi di tre presidenti passando dalla fine della gestione Khan al periodo di Paul Levitz (2003-2008) fino ad arrivare alla nomina di Diane Nelson nel 2009. Dopo un periodo di stabilità che durava da fine anni settanta la DC affronta quindi un periodo di transizione. A livello globale l'occidente individua un nuovo nemico nel terrorismo e nella crisi economica[69]. Gli Stati Uniti si trovano ad affrontare una lunga guerra e la speranza di una pace mondiale diventa utopia. Queste incertezze si trasferisono anche nei fumetti che assumono un tono più cupo e riflettono le incertezze della società[69]. La DC torna a parlare di guerra e le sue drammatiche conseguenze nei suoi fumetti[69]. Emblematica è la saga denominata World War III (cioè Terza Guerra Mondiale) che vede Black Adam come nemesi dei supereroi DC[69]. Anche la capitale Washington viene invasa dalle Amazzoni nella saga Amazon Attacks. Tornano tra l'altro i fumetti di guerra con gli albi War Story e Haunted Tank (ambientato nel conflitto del Golfo) per la Vertigo e una miniserie sul Sergente Rock di Billy Tucci[69].In questa decade assumono un ruolo fondamemtale gli autori e tra questi Grant Morrison, Geoff Johns, Mark Waid e Jim Lee[69]. A loro si devono alcune delle storie di maggior successo dell'editore, grazie alle quali si arriva (anche se per brevi periodi) a superare le vendite della rivale Marvel Comics. Aumenta anche l'importanza delle raccol
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cquisizione dei Wildstorm Studios (1998)Il 27 agosto 1998[65], la DC Comics (grazie alle trattative imbastite da Paul Levitz) riesce ad acquisire uno dei brand di maggior successo dell'editoria indipendente degli anni novanta[65]. Si tratta dei Wildstorm Studios di Jim Lee, una delle colonne portanti della Image dal 1992 al 1998[65]. La Wildstorm ha venduto in pochi anni decine di milione di copie dei suoi albi e ha in catalogo titoli di grande successo quali WildC.A.T.S. e Gen 13 e innumerovoli altri personaggi divenuti particolarmente famosi nel decennio[66]. Oltre a questi possiede imprint dedicati alle opere creator owned (cioè di proprietà degli autori) e vanta collaborazioni tra alcuni dei nomi più importanti del panorama fumettistico statunitense[66]. Jim Lee mantiene la direzione editoriale dei suoi studios, quindi (inizialmente) slegati dalle politiche della DC e allo stesso tempo si dedica al rilancio dei più importanti personaggi del DC Universe quali Batman, Superman e la Justice League. Grazie all'acquisizione degli studios la DC si ritrova a pubblicare alcune delle opere più importanti del periodo tra le quali Authority di Warren Ellis (dal maggio 1999), che propone un supergruppo in chiave revisionista e non incline al politically correct[66], Danger Girl di J.Scott Campbell e Astro City di Kurt Busiek (tramite l'etichetta Homage)[66]. Oltre ad aumentare la diversificazione e qualità del materiale proposto aumentano anche le vendite dei supereroi class
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Collasso delle vendite e diversificazione editorialeNei primi anni novanta la DC cade nello stesso errore di programmazione e marketing della rivale Marvel e di molti altri editori indipendenti. Infatti il duo Marvel-DC aumenta continuamente le offerte di nuove serie, miniserie e storie-evento che collegano decine di testate e talvolta centinaia di personaggi[58]. Il tutto è accompagnato da una riduzione della qualità media degli albi dei supereroi e un aumento del prezzo di copertina[58]. Il problema è che non esiste un mercato in grado di sostenere questo tipo di offerta e dopo il 1993 inizia un crollo delle vendite che porta entro il 1996 alla pubblicazione del 70% in meno di nuove serie rispetto solo a tre anni prima[58]. La Marvel Comics che è passata dal produrre 40 titoli al mese nel 1985 a 140 nel 1993, si trova in estrema difficoltà e dichiara bancarotta il 27 dicembre 1996[58]. La stessa DC soffre il momento negativo ma la gestione Khan-Levitz-Giordano riesce con una certa lungimiranza a prevedere la necessità di allargarsi verso nuovi lettori non legati al mercato speculativo del decennio e non necessariamente interessati al genere supereroistico. In seguito a questa visione del mercato si cominciano a delineare progetti editoriali che diversifichino le proposte della casa editrice.Il progetto di maggior successo (e ancora attivo oggi) è la creazione dell'imprint Vertigo sotto la direazione di Karen Berger, che debutta nel 1993 con la miniserie Neil Gaiman
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La morte e resurrezione di SupermanAgli inizi degli anni novanta la DC decide di realizzare un evento editoriale che segnerà la storia del fumetto e il record assoluto di vendite per un albo a fumetti[53]. Con un tempismo di mercato perfetto la DC decide di realizzare una saga a fumetti che porta alla definitiva (almeno così facevano trapelare) morte del personaggio simbolo dei supereroi cioè Superman[53]. Il tutto viene sapientemente costruito sotto la direzione di Mike Carlin (redattore delle testate di Superman) che riesce a dare all'evento una risonanza mediatica mai avuta prima da nessun'altra storia a fumetti[53]. Questo avviene anche grazie alla popolarità del personaggio e al fatto che i media cadono ingenuamente nel tranello che si stia davvero assistendo alla fine editoriale dell'Uomo d'Acciaio. L'albo che vede la morte del primo dei supereroi avviene su Superman (vol. 2) n. 75 di Dan Jurgens e si tratta del fumetto più venduto di tutti i tempi per un totale di 6 milioni di copie[53]. L'albo esce con data di copertina «gennaio 1993» (ma distribuito il 18 novembre 1992) e segna l'inizio di quello che ancora oggi rimane l'anno-record per le vendite dei fumetti statunitensi. Questo non è solo dovuto alla DC ma anche alla neonata casa indipendente Image Comics e alla sconsiderata espansione del parco testate Marvel e DC tra il 1991 e il 1993. Il problema è che il mercato non può reggere un tale livello di offerta semplicemente perché mancano lettori d
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Gli anni novanta (1990-1999)Sono anni caratterizzati (nella prima metà) dalla prevalenza della forma sulla sostanza[52] e dalla esplosione di vendite che avviene tra il 1990 e il 1994. I fumetti tornano a vendere milioni di copie come nel periodo Golden Age e gli artisti diventano delle super-stars in grado di far vendere un albo per i loro disegni o anche per il solo fatto che ne realizzano la copertina[52]. La copertina di un albo diviene fondamentale per incrementarne le vendite o decretarne il successo. Per questo cominciano a proliferare copertine variant, limited (in italiano: «a tiratura limitata»), incellophanate e con ologrammi[52]. I lettori sembrano inoltre attirati dalle storie a fumetti "ad evento", cioè storie che promettono di raccontare lotte e/o cambiamenti epocali per i supereroi coinvolti, spesso e preferibilmente con l'annuncio di una morte imprevista e clamorosa di un personaggio importante (o ritenuto tale). Questo tipo di storie caratterizzerà tutto il decennio e riguarda in particolar modo tutti i personaggi iconici della DC che in un modo o nell'altro si trovano costretti ad affrontare la loro morte/caduta e resurrezione/rinascita. La DC sfrutta al massimo questo periodo arrivando a ideare La morte di Superman, saga-evento del decennio che verrà ripetuta su altri personaggi come lo stesso Batman con la storyline Knightfall.Il problema di fondo è che l'esplosione delle vendite e l'interesse per i comic è soprattutto frutto di una bolla sp
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La DC post-CrisisGrazie al Direct Market e ai nuovi formati la DC recupera mercato e si pone come una concreta rivale della Marvel negli anni ottanta. Il punto debole della casa editrice rimane la sua continuity incoerente e poco lineare[49]. Il problema è che la realtà DC è composta da oltre una dozzina di differenti dimensioni (nel 1985), spesso con versioni alternative di personaggi come Superman e Batman[49]. A questo si aggiunge il fatto che i personaggi acquisiti da altre case editrici come la Charlton, la Fawcett e la Quality vivono le loro storie in realtà differenti. Oltre alla confusione narrativa la dirigenza creativa e manageriale, ora composta dal trio Khan-Levitz-Giordano, si trova ad affrontare la necessità di aggiornare personaggi ormai cinquantenari come Superman, Batman e Wonder Woman per le nuove generazioni[49]. In questa impresa hanno già fallito in passato veterani come Julius Schwartz, Carmine Infantino e Joe Orlando. Adesso però c'è una nuova generazione di autori capitanata da Marv Wolfman (grande esperto di continuity DC) che propone all'editore il progetto più audace mai realizzato per svecchiare l'universo DC e cioè Crisi sulle Terre Infinite, miniserie di 12 numeri pubblicata tra il 1985 e il 1986[49]. La storia vede centinaia di personaggi DC combattere contro un essere talmente potente che cancella tutte le terre parallele (con le loro storie e le rispettive versioni dei personaggi) tranne cinque, destinate a fondersi in una sola re
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Nuovi formati e riorganizzazioneIl primo passo (già iniziato a fine anni settanta) consiste nel miglioramento delle condizioni economiche e lavorative degli autori, soprattutto i freelancer ai quali si garantisce anche una copertura per l'assicurazione sanitaria[43]. Per quanto riguarda gli autori-dipendenti si cerca dove possibile di sottoscrivere contratti di almeno un anno o più[43]. Dal 1981 inizia un royalty plan che garantisce agli autori una percentuale sui guadagni di un albo una volta superate le 100000 copie (cioè il break-even di quel periodo)[43]. Questa politica a favore dei creativi viene migliorata sotto l'impulso di Dick Giordano che a partire dal 1984 assume la carica di Vicepresidente-Editor esecutivo della DC Comics. Sotto la sua guida l'impulso a produrre fumetti di qualità aumenterà costantemente così come l'attenzione alle esigenze sia contrattuali che creative degli scrittori e disegnatori. Grazie al giovane Paul Levitz (confermato nella sua carica) si compie un passo decisivo per la DC e per l'intero mercato fumettistico in quanto intuisce che il futuro della casa editrice dipende da un nuovo tipo di distribuzione differente da quello delle edicole (definito Newsstands Market)[46]. Si tratta del canale alternativo della distribuzione nei negozi specializzati di fumetti (conosciuti come comic-shop o fumetterie in italiano). A fine anni settanta coprono solo il 10% del mercato ma quindici anni dopo arriveranno quasi all'80%[46]. Tramite quest
Relazione da Anonimo10 day agoSconosciuto
Jenette Khan al comando (1976-2002)Logo DC 1977-2005, noto come "Bullet Logo" o "DC Bullet"Nel 1976 il presidente Sol Harrison della DC compie una scelta sorprendente e mette al posto di Carmine Infantino una giovane redattrice di ventotto anni e senza nessuna esperienza nell'editoria dei fumetti supereroistici: Jenette Khan, che diviene nuovo redattore-capo e responsabile creativo e di marketing di un colosso dell'editoria quale la National Periodical Publications[43]. Questo è infatti il nome con la quale si chiama ancora ufficialmente la DC e una delle prime decisioni della Khan è quella di passare definitivamente al nome DC Comics e per l'occasione commissiona un nuovo logo a Milton Glaser[43]. L'artista crea il famoso Bullet Logo, con cui si identificherà la casa editrice per quasi trent'anni. Finora Khan ha diretto riviste per bambini e non si è mai trovata a dover affrontare la gestione di un parco testate così vasto come quello DC[43]. A questo si aggiunge la difficoltà del periodo, che vede un lento ma inesorabile declino delle vendite e una riduzione dei margini di guadagno in seguito all'aumento del costo della carta. E ormai la Marvel Comics si appresta a effettuare il sorpasso nelle vendite sulla DC, che negli ultimi tredici anni ha assistito all'espansione della Casa delle Idee senza riuscire a controbatterla in maniera efficace. Dal punto di vista creativo il lavoro di Carmine Infantino è stato comunque encomiabile e il rinnovo dei personaggi
Relazione da Anonimo10 day agoSconosciuto
StoriaLe originiNel 1934 nasceva la National Allied Publications, casa editrice di fumetti, fondata dal maggiore della cavalleria statunitense Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson[2]. Reduce dai campi della Grande Guerra comincia a lavorare nell'editoria negli anni venti, vendendo storie in prosa e strisce a fumetti (o comic strips) ai giornali tramite una sua agenzia di stampa chiamata : (o syndicate)[3]. Il primo albo della sua casa editrice esce nel febbraio 1935 e porta il titolo New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine[3]. La prima grande innovazione risiede nel realizzare una pubblicazione a fumetti contenente del materiale inedito[3]. Fino a quel periodo le riviste a fumetti contenevano in gran parte ristampe delle strisce pubblicate sui quotidiani (newspaper comic strips). Le dimensioni di questa prima pubblicazione sono quelle di un quotidiano e le pagine interne sono in bianco e nero[2]. L'unica storia a colori è quella presentata in copertina, un racconto di genere western in 12 vignette che introduce il primo personaggio originale della DC: il cowboy Jack Woods (di cui ancora oggi non si conosce l'autore del soggetto)[3]. La rivista è costosa per via della carta utilizzata per il formato ed è poco attraente per l'assenza del colore nell'interno. La seconda serie pubblicata cambia formato e viene intitolata inizialmente New Comics (del dicembre 1935) per poi divenire More Fun Comics[4] e di fatto impone sul mercato le dimensioni (circa 17 centimetri di larghezza per 26 di alte
Relazione da Anonimo10 day agoSconosciuto
Lo sapevi che...Murchison Falls 573x430.jpgLa spedizione romana alle sorgenti del Nilo fu promossa da Nerone per scoprire da dove avesse origine il grande fiume africano. Fu condotta tra il 62 e il 67 d.C. da alcuni centurioni che risalirono il Nilo verso l'Africa equatoriale. È parte di un insieme di spedizioni, condotte tra il 19 a.C. e l'86 d.C, volte all'esplorazione e all'acquisizione del controllo delle vie carovaniere attraverso il Sahara, che garantivano il commercio tra la costa mediterranea e l'Africa subsahariana; tra queste, si ricorda la spedizione romana verso il Lago Ciad e il fiume Niger. La penetrazione romana nell'Africa subsahariana fu superata solo dall'espansione islamica tra l'VIII e il XVI secolo e poi da quella delle potenze europee nel XIX secolo.Leggi la voce · Proponi un'altra voceRicorrenzeRicorrenzeBattisti.jpgLucio BattistiNati il 9 settembre...Aureliano (214)Cardinale Richelieu (1585)Lev Tolstoj (1828)... e mortiGuglielmo I d'Inghilterra (1087)Nicola Abbagnano (1990)Lucio Battisti (1998)In questo giorno accadde...9 – La sconfitta dei romani nella battaglia della foresta di Teutoburgo segna la fine dell'espansionismo romano in Germania.337 – Costantino II, Costanzo II e Costante I, figli dell'imperatore romano Costantino I, vengono incoronati augusti a Sirmio e regnano insieme sull'Impero romano.1948 – È istituita la Repubblica Popolare Democratica di Corea.1973 – Novella Calligaris conquista, a Belgrado, il titolo mondial
Relazione da Anonimo10 day agoSconosciuto
PatrickBreenDiaryPage28.jpgCon il nome di Spedizione Donner (talvolta chiamata Spedizione Donner-Reed) ci si riferisce a un gruppo di pionieri statunitensi che nel corso della presidenza di James Knox Polk partì per la California, riunito in una colonna di carri. Costretti al ritardo da una serie di disavventure, i membri della spedizione dovettero trascorrere l'inverno tra il 1846 e il 1847 accampati sulla Sierra Nevada. Alcuni emigranti ricorsero al cannibalismo per sopravvivere, nutrendosi dei morti per fame o malattie.Il viaggio verso ovest in genere richiedeva dai quattro ai sei mesi, ma la spedizione Donner scelse una nuova via, chiamata Hastings Cutoff, che attraversava i Monti Wasatch e il deserto del Gran Lago Salato. Il terreno accidentato e le difficoltà incontrate nel percorso, che costeggiava il fiume Humboldt, provocarono la perdita di molti capi di bestiame e carri, e divisero il gruppo.All'inizio di novembre del 1846 la spedizione raggiunse la Sierra Nevada, dove fu bloccata da una massiccia nevicata precoce nei pressi del Lago Truckee (oggi Lago Donner). Le scorte di cibo finirono, e a metà dicembre un gruppo decise di partire a piedi per cercare aiuto. Soccorritori partirono da Sacramento, tentando di raggiungere gli emigranti, ma non arrivarono prima della metà di febbraio del 1847, quasi quattro mesi dopo che la carovana era rimasta bloccata. Solo 48 degli 87 componenti della spedizione arrivarono vivi a Sacramento.Gli storici hanno descritto l'epis
Relazione da Anonimo28 day agoSconosciuto
ATTENZIONE: il soggetto in questione mi ha fatto notificare una denuncia per diffamazione aggravata
Relazione da Anonimo9 day agoNegativo
Denunciato alle forze dell' ordine per truffa.
Relazione da Anonimo13 day agoSconosciuto
TRUFFATORE....
Relazione da Anonimo25 day agoNegativo
ATTENZIONE IN QUESTO PERIODO CERCA DI TRUFFARE CON UNA CANON 80D, NON CASCATECI....
Relazione da Anonimo8 day agoSconosciuto
Truffatore da Bardonecchia
Relazione da Anonimo22 day agoSconosciuto
Truffatore kijiji - Luigi frezza da bardonecchina - vende su kijiji - Scheda video asus - sarà segnalato alle forze dell'ordine
Relazione da Anonimo22 day agoNegativo
Truffatore
Relazione da Anonimo22 day agoNegativo
Truffatore

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Mi chiama richiamo non risponde nessuno STRANO! !

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Numero che non mi risulta da nessuna parte. Non riesco a trovare delle info. qualcuno lo conosce?

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Numero di telefono che continua a chiamarmi ormai da quasi un mese

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Figo!! Figo in tutto!!!!!

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Mi manchi terribilmente!!!

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